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Psychological First Aid. Symptoms and Psychological First Aid Preschool through Second Grade. Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

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Psychological First Aid


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    1. Psychological First Aid

    2. Symptoms and Psychological First AidPreschool through Second Grade Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    3. Symptoms and Psychological First AidPreschool through Second Grade Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    4. Symptoms and Psychological First AidThird through Fifth Grade Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    5. Symptoms and Psychological First AidThird through Fifth Grade Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    6. Symptoms and Psychological First AidThird through Fifth Grade Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    7. Symptoms and Psychological First AidAdolescents (Sixth Grade and Up) Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    8. Symptoms and Psychological First AidAdolescents (Sixth Grade and Up) Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    9. Initial ConsultationFirst Stage: Opening • Establish the focus • Free drawing and storytelling • Traumatic reference Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    10. Initial ConsultationSecond Stage: Trauma • Reliving the experience • - Emotional release • - Reconstruction • - Perceptual experience • - Special detailing • - Worst moment • - Violence / physical mutilation Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    11. Initial ConsultationSecond Stage: Trauma • Coping with the experience • - Issues of human accountability • - Inner plans of action • - Punishment or retaliation • - Fears of counter-retaliation • - Challenge to child’s impulse control • - Influence of previous trauma • - Traumatic dreams • - Future orientation • - Current Stresses Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

    12. Initial ConsultationThird Stage: Closure • Recapitulation • Underscore realistic fears • Universalize the child’s responses • Describe expectable course • Acknowledge child’s courage in undertaking the interview • Invite child critique of consultation • Proper leave-taking Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.