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Computer Graphics and Animation Sabin Tabirca Email: s.tabirca@cs.ucc.ie Phone: (490) 3662 Office: Brighton Villas, Multimedia Building, Second Floor Contact Hours: Monday 11-13. Aim of the Course: To introduce some Computer Graphics concepts using Java. Objectives of the Course:

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Computer graphics and animation sabin tabirca l.jpg
Computer Graphics and AnimationSabin Tabirca

Email: s.tabirca@cs.ucc.ie Phone: (490) 3662

Office: Brighton Villas, Multimedia Building, Second Floor

Contact Hours: Monday 11-13.

Aim of the Course: To introduce someComputer Graphicsconcepts using Java.

Objectives of the Course:

- To give some minimal Java skills for Multimedia Programming.

- To introduce some Computer Graphics elements.

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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Structure of the Course

Introduction to Java Programming

- Java basics: data types, statements, methods, classes, …

- The Java classes for Graphics: Graphics, Graphics2D, …

- Elements of GUI design: awt / swing …

Computer Graphics

- Turtle Graphics and fractals

- 2D Graphics: Transformations, 2D curves, …

Animation and Games in Java

Multimedia for Mobile devices

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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References

Java:

Dietel & Dietel, Advanced / Java: How to Program, Prentince Hall, 2001.

Steve Holzner, The Java Black Book, Coriolis Press, 2000.

Chuck Cavaness et. al, Using Java 2 Standard Edition,QUE Press, 2001

Graphics:

V.D. Foley, Introduction to Computer Graphics, Addison-Wesley Publ.

Peter Cooley, The essence of Computer Graphics, Prentice Hall

Java + Graphics: J. Knudsen, Java 2D Graphics, O’Reilly Publ, 2000.

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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Introduction to Java

What is Java? It is more than a programming language.

History: James Gosling

1990 - Green Project, Oak language

1993 - HotJava browser

Sun Microsystems: 1995 - Java 1.0, 1997 - Java 1.1, 1998 – Java 1.2, 2002?

Advantages [according to Sun Microsystems]:

simple, object-oriented, WEB oriented, compiled, architecture neutral,

multi-threaded, garbage collected, robust, secure, and extensible.

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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JDK – Java Developers Kit

JDK is a collection of libraries and tools.

The Main Libraries:

java.awt – graphic interfaces [java.awt.Graphics; java.awt.image, …]

java.applet – applet java.io – input/output java.math – mathematics

java.net – network java.sql – databases …

Rule: Import the packages you need. import java.awt.*; import java.applet.Applet;

The main tools:

javac – compiler java – interpreter jre – runtime interpreter

jdb – debuggerjavadoc – help generating appletviewer – execute an applet

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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The First Java Application

Steps: Editing >> Compiling >> (Correcting Errors) >> Executing

Step 1. Edit the java program FirstApplication (Notepad, Wordpad, Simple Text, …)

Step 2. Compile the file FirstApplication.java (javac FirstApplication.java)

Step 3. Execute the program (java FirstApplication.java)

public class L1App1{

public static void main( String args[] ){ System.out.println(“This is our first Java Application”)

}

}

Rule: The file name (L1App1.java) and the class name (L1App1) must be identical.

Computer Graphics - Course 1.



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The First Java Applet

Steps: Editing >> Compiling >> (Correcting Errors)

Editing the html file >> Executing the applet via a browser(Internet Explorer …)

Step 1. Edit the java applet FirstApplet.java (Notepad, Wordpad, Simple Text, …)

Step 2. Compile the file FirstApplet.java (javac FirstApplet.java)

Step 3. Edit the HTML file FirstApplet.html

Step 4. Run the applet either via a browser of appletviewer

Important:

The Java file name (L1Appl1.java) and the class name (L1Appl1) must be identical.

Golden Rule: Keep the same name for the HTML file.

Computer Graphics - Course 1.



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The file L1Appl1.java

import java.applet.Applet;

import java.awt.Graphics;

public class L1Appl1 extends Applet{

public void paint( Graphics g){

g.drawString(“This is our first Java applet”, 30, 30);

}

}

The file L1Appl1.html

<HTLM>

<BODY>

<APPLET CODE=L1Appl1.class, WIDTH=200, HEIGHT=200>

</APPLET>

</BODY>

</HTLM>

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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The Structure of a Java Applet

1. Import declaration;

import java.package.*;  import all the classes of package

import java.package.Class;  import only the class Class of package

Golden Rule: Import all the packages that the applet needs.

2. Construct the body of MyApplet

public classMyApplet extends Applet{

public void paint( Graphics g){

… the body of method paint

}

}

Golden Rule of Names:

classes  the first digit of words is cap (e.g. MyApplet, Graphics, Applet, ..)

variables, methods  the first digit of words is cap excepting the first word

(e.g. paint, myOwnVariable, myOwnMethod,…)

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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Applet 1. Draw a line

Draw a line between (xInitial, yInitial) and (xFinal, yFinal).

import java.applet.Applet;

import java.awt.Graphics;

public class L1Appl2 extends Applet {

public void paint(Graphics g) {

// declare and initialise the variables

int xInitial,yInitial,xFinal,yFinal;

xInitial=100;yInitial=100;xFinal=200;yFinal=200;

g.drawString(“This is a line: “, 50, 50);

// draw the line

g.drawLine(xInitial,yInitial,xFinal,yFinal); // draw the line

}

Remarks: drawString, drawLine are methods of class Graphics.

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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Program 1. Sum of 2 numbers.

Find the sum of two integer numbers firstNr, secondNr.

class SumTwoNum{

public static void main( String args[] ){

int firstNr, secondNr, sumNrs; // declare the numbers and sum

firstNr=1; secondNr=2; // initialization of the numbers

sumNrs=firstNr+secondNr; // find the sum

System.out.println(“ sum = “ + sum);

}

}

Remarks: String everything in “ ” is a string. String + Number = String

System.out.println(str ) write the string str and jump a new line.

System.out.print(str ) write the string str.

Rule: Declare and Initialise each variable of the applet.

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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Class Graphics is part of the package awt (abstract window toolkit).

Graphics contains methods:

- to draw objects: drawString, drawRect, drawLine, drawOval, drawImage, …

- to fill objects: fillRect, fillOval, fillPolygon.

- get/set element of current Graphics: color, font, …

Find more information at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/api/index.html.

Go to awt + Graphics.

In method paint:

- Declare the variables of the applet.

- Compute the elements of the applet.

- Draw the objects of your applet.

Class Graphics

Computer Graphics - Course 1.


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Applet 2. Draw a rectangle from (xInitial, yInitial) with (widthRect, heightRect) and find information about its square and perimeter.

import java.applet.Applet;

import java.awt.Graphics;

public class L1Appl3 extends Applet {

public void paint(Graphics g) {

int xInitial,yInitial,widthRect,heightRect; // declare and initialize the variables

xInitial=100;yInitial=100;widthRect=200;heightRect=100;

int perRect=2*widthRect+2*heightRect; // calculate the perimeter and square

int squareRect=widthRect*heightRect;

g.drawString("The perimeter is: "+perRect, 50, 50);

g.drawString("The square is: "+squareRect, 50, 70);

g.drawRect(xInitial,yInitial,widthRect,heightRect); // draw the rectangle

}

}

Draw a Rectangle

Computer Graphics - Course 1.



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  • Problems to Read:

    1. Java Tutorial: The first coupe of Java.

    2. Java by Example: Java Overview

  • Applets to Write:

    Applet 1. Write an applet to draw a String three times at (50,50), (50,100), (50, 150).

    Applet 2. Write an applet to draw a triangle ABC with A(xA,yA), B(xB,yB) and C(xC, yC).

Computer Graphics - Course 1.