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Animation and/or Computer Animation. Dr. Stephania Loizidou Himona Associate Professor Frederick Institute of Technology. Computer Graphics deals with. Geometric Modeling Rendering Animation ***. What is Animation?. One-word definition : Vision

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animation and or computer animation

Animation and/or Computer Animation

Dr. Stephania Loizidou Himona

Associate Professor

Frederick Institute of Technology

computer graphics deals with
Computer Graphics deals with
  • Geometric Modeling
  • Rendering
  • Animation ***
what is animation
What is Animation?
  • One-word definition : Vision
  • The illusion of motion created by the consecutive display of images of static elements : Persistence of Vision
  • The process of bringing life through the use of motion to lifeless things : e.g. Virtual Reality
  • The “copying” of the real world, to enhance and to take the essence of the motion that is there : Level of Art
  • The technique by which each frame is produced individually : In film/video production

Form generation









what is computer animation
What is Computer Animation?
  • The art of creating moving images via the use of computers
  • The use of computers to create animations : also referred to as CGI (Computer Generated Imagery) – especially when used in movies
  • The modeling, motion generation, addition of surfaces and then rendering
thus computer graphics vs animation or computer animation a subfield
Thus, Computer Graphics vs Animation (or, Computer Animation, a subfield)
  • Inter-related issues
    • Difficult to distinguish one from the other.
    • Their improvements are done in parallel!
    • Their effects …
  • Major Part of their difference is that Animation involves basically and primarily the concept of

Motion Control

different ways of basic cgi
Different ways of basicCGI
  • 3D Animations, create objects and then render them
  • Use standard computer painting tools to paint single frames and composite them
  • Use morphing : modify existing images and video

Examples :

- Medicine

- Advertising

- Film

- Flight Simulation

- Television

- Simulation

- Entertainment

- Video

the possibilities of the applications are endless
The possibilities (of the applications) are endless

Architecture, Multimedia, Engineering,

Archeology, Chemistry, Art, Education,

Scientific Visualization, Space Exploration

+anything that you can think of !!!

how is it done
How is it done?
  • Aim : 24 distinct drawings for one second of animation

produces realistic enough movement!

i.e. perceivable due to way the eye and brain process images

e.g. Human-Body Movement

A Bouncing Ball

A Horse Galloping


but such a process
But, such a process,
  • Very time-consuming
    • Creating the characters
    • Programmed the movement(s)
    • Rendering (a lot of time)
  • Very expensive to produce, and often,
  • Very labor intensive as well as tedious
styles and techniques of animation
Styles and techniques of Animation
  • Traditional Animation

Character Animation

Limited Animation


  • Computer Animation


Skeletal Animation

Morph-target Animation

Cel-shaded Animation

Onion Skinning

Analogue Computer Animation

Motion Capture

Tradigital Animation

styles and techniques of animation continued
Styles and techniques of Animation(continued)
  • Drawn on Film
  • Special effects Animation
to allow animation to be viewed on a computer
To allow Animation to be viewed on a computer
  • Graphics file formats exist such as
    • GIF
    • MNG
    • SVG
    • Flash (SWF)


how is it done continued
How is it done (continued)

Sophisticated mathematics and/or constructive solid geometry are used

  • To manipulate complex 3D polygons
  • To apply textures
  • To apply lighting
  • To apply other effects to the polygon

and finally,

  • To render the complete image
sophisticated graphical user interface gui

Sophisticated Graphical User Interface (GUI)

is used, usually, to create the animation

some examples of cgi short films
Finding Nemo

ReBoot (the 1st one!)


Chicken Little

Toy Story 1 & 2

Waking Life

Shrek 1 & 2

Veggie Tales



Ice Age

Father of the Bride

Some examples (of CGI short films)

and many-many more!

cartoons without politics since 2001 some more recent examples
Cartoons Without Politics (since 2001)(some more recent examples!)

Films that used CGI,

nominated for Academic Awards :

  • The Curse of the Were-Rabbit
  • Corpse Bride
  • Moving Castle

In the future, films with excellent animated features, but perhaps without CGI!

what is rendering
What is Rendering?
  • The process a computer uses to create an image from a data file
  • The process of generating the pixels of an image based on a high-level description of its components
  • The process of cutting a character/object from an image so that it can be used in designs
rendering continued
Rendering (continued)

A user handles a mesh – a rough representation of an object

When s/he is satisfied with the mesh s/he renders the image

i.e. every section of the mesh gets colored

also, inclusion of hidden-line removal

rendering a lengthy process
Rendering – a lengthy process

Different methods :

  • Flat shading
  • Gourad
  • Phong
  • Ray Tracing
  • Radiosity


Binary system



Coordinate systems


Direct Kinematics

Direct Dynamics



Human-figure animation

Inverse Kinematics

Inverse Dynamics





Onion skinning





Surface Mapping

the future what awaits us
The future. What awaits us?

What is expected : The current level of animation (2D, 3D) to be replaced with Virtual Reality

i.e. the person watching a movie to see himself in the movie as a person watching from the side


Computer Animationto become the standard way of making every kind of a movie, not just animated movies

realistic simulation of humans

Realistic simulation of Humans

Photorealistic human characters

Undergoing physically-correct motion (with clothes, hair, interaction with other human characters

That is,

No difference from real actors

No difference from the real world

The possibilities are endless!!!