Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Islam

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  1. Islam Submission to God

  2. Map of World Religions

  3. The Mosque: A place of Worship

  4. The Mosque: A place of Worship

  5. The Mosque: A place of Worship

  6. The Mosque: A place of Worship

  7. The Qur’an (The Koran) • Central Sacred Text of Islam • Written in Arabic • 114 Chapters, called Surahs • Read from Right to Left • Divine dictation: Cannot be translated

  8. Muhammad • Prophet of Islam • Born in Mecca • Revered by Muslims as symbol of piety • Insisted on worship of one God (monotheism)

  9. The Five Pillars of Islam

  10. The First Pillar: Shahada • There is one God • Muhammad is God’s messenger

  11. The Second Pillar Salah

  12. Salah • Must pray in direction of Mecca • Muslims must pray five times a day • Dawn • Noon • In the afternoon • In the evening • At sunset

  13. The Third Pillar: Zakat Must donate to charity

  14. The Fourth Pillar: Sawm • Fast during Holy Month of Ramadan • Ninth month of Islamic calendar • No food or drink from sunrise to sunset • No alcohol or tobacco all month • End of month celebration: Eid-al-fitr

  15. The Fifth Pillar: Hajj • Pilgrimage to Mecca • Must make at least once in lifetime

  16. Other Islamic Practices • No pork products • No alcoholic beverages • Males are circumcised • Polygamy is allowed by law, but not commonly practiced • Cannot lend money for interest

  17. Calligraphy • “Beautiful Writing” • Decorate public buildings • Honor the Quran

  18. Islamic Art • Very little use of people in art • Many animals and patterns • Prayer rugs important

  19. Prayer rug

  20. Decorative tile

  21. Islamic Architecture • Basic needs for a mosque: large covered space for praying • Towers with minarets • Muezzin calls followers to worship • Community gathering place

  22. Dome of the Rock (Jerusalem) • Completed 691 • Octagon building with golden dome • Mosaics/later tiles inside • Centered around a rock • The place where Muhammad ascended to heaven • Where Abraham bound Isaac (Ishmael) • Adam died and buried

  23. Mecca • Destination of the hajj (pilgrimage) • Birthplace of Muhammad • Forced to flee the city • Fled to Medina • Returned to Mecca convinced people • Qa’aba/Kabba (cube) focal point • Footprints of Abraham • Tomb of Ishmael

  24. Hajj to Mecca

  25. Mosque of Damascus • Damascus, Syria • Roman temple  Byzantine church • Mosaics & marble • Flowing water

  26. Great Mosque of Damascus

  27. Mosque in Cordoba, Spain • Muslims arrived in Spain in 700’s • Mosque designed to rival Damascus • Many columns supporting arches • Mosaic workmanship • Christians drove from Spain 1492

  28. Mosque in Cordoba, Spain

  29. Taj Mahal, India • Emperor Shah Jahan’s wife dies • Mumtaz Mahal’s mausoleum • Completed 1647-1652 • Polished white marble • Inspired by Koran’s paradise • Minarets, domed tomb, reflecting pools • Symbol of India

  30. Taj Mahal

  31. Islamic star patterns • Lack of humans depicted • Mathematical inspiration