Human Development. I. Early Development. A. Conception. B. Zygotes: fertilized eggs . . C. Embryo: the human organism from 2 weeks to 2 months of age . D. Fetus: from 8 weeks to birth . E. Teratogens. F. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: 1) occurs when pregnant mothers drink heavily
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B. Zygotes: fertilized eggs.
F. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome:
1) occurs when pregnant mothers drink heavily
2) affects 1 in 750 children
3) small heads and distorted facial features
4) brain abnormalities
5) the leading form of mental retardation
A. Rooting Reflex: when something touches a baby’s cheek, it immediately opens its mouth and searches for a nipple.
F. Attraction to Novelty: a demonstrated interest in a temporally or historically new stimulus.
A. Sigmund Freud’s 5 Stages:
A. Schema:a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
B. Assimilation: we integrate new and similar experiences
into our existing schemas.
C. Accommodation: we adapt our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new and different information.
2) Pre-operational:representing things with words and images, but lacking logical reasoning (age 2 to 6).
3) Concrete Operational:the ability to think logically about concrete events and engage in inductive reasoning. The ability to do basic math and understand the conservation of mass (age 7 to 11).
4) Formal Operational: engage in abstract reasoning and deductive reasoning. Capable of moral and ethical thought (age 11 and up).
VII. Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky
A. Zone of Proximal Development: the distance between what a child can do alone and what a child can do with assistance from others.
B. Scaffolding: temporary support to help a child master a task.
A. Attachment:a reciprocal, enduring tie between an infant
and a caregiver, each of whom contributes to the quality of the
B. The 4 Attachment Styles
C. Gender Identification: an individual’s sense of maleness or femaleness.
D. Stranger Anxiety: fear of strangers.
E. Critical Period: an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences must occur during this time to ensure proper development.
F. Body Contact: Harlow’s Monkeys
H. Deprivation of Attachment
1) Authoritarian:relentlessly imposing rules and
2) Permissive (indulgent):parenting style emphasizing
self-expression and self-regulation.
3) Uninvolved (indifferent):do whatever you want.
4) Authoritative:have rules and control, but explain why
they are necessary in a loving and caring way.
approaching and reacting to situations.
Responds well to change and novelty
2) Slow to Warm Up
Generally mild reactions
Hesitant about new experiences
Intense emotional responses
M. School During Middle Childhood: Issues of Prejudice and Discrimination
N. Nontraditional families
P. Sex Differences
A. Identity Development
1) Identity Crisis: concern with decisions about the future and achieving self-understanding.
Lifespan: Erik Erikson
A. Midlife Transition:a reassessment of personal goals that many people experience in adulthood.
XII. Old Age
A. Happiness= satisfaction with accomplishments and very few regrets.
B. Five Stages of Coming to Terms with Death
1) Denial: this can’t be happening to me!
2) Anger: why me?
3) Bargaining… for extra time.
“If only I can…I won’t ask for anything else.”