HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INFANCY & CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD & OLD AGE
INTRO TO DEV. • INFANCY • CHILDHOOD • ADOLESCENCE • ADULTHOOD • OLD AGE
THE STUDY OF CHANGE • Developmental psychology • study of changes that occur over a person’s lifetime as the person matures
What Dev. Psych Study • 1) course & causes of change • 2) beh. 1st appear & how they change • 3) nature & nurture • 4) early experiences vs. later experiences • 5) stability vs. change • 6) continuity vs. stages
NURTURE & NATURE • NURTURE • Environ; learned • profound & permanent effect • “blank slate” –teach kids about the world & how to behave in it • NATURE • DNA • Some growth unaffected by environ. • Kids capable of discovering how the world operates & how to behave w/o instruction
Maturation • dev. changes that occur as a result of automatic, bio determined signals • Dev. rate • dev. is often sequential & happens @ about the same age for everyone • Why? Biological influences • Why? Face similar demands & crisis’ from society & environments
SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV. • changes in the how we relate to each other, interact, & dev. relationships & bonds; changes in feelings & emotions, personality • PHYSICAL DEV. • Growth of the body, changes in the brain & sensory organs, dev. of motor skills, how we use muscle groups
COGNITIVE DEV. • changes in the ways we think, process info, & think about the world: reason, learn, acquire lang., use knowledge, intelligence, personality, moral reasoning, perceptions
Major Dev. Theories • Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Dev. • How ppl reach sexual maturity, personality dev • diff’t body parts become sources of pleasure – we must supress certain impulses & desires – sexual instincts are a main motivator for behavior & affects personality • Erickson’s Theory of Psychosocial Dev. • face 8 central crisis – how they resolve it affects personality & relationships
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Dev. • how we dev. moral reasoning; why we think things are wrong or right • Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Dev. • ppl acquire new ways of mentally representing information
INFANCY 0 – 2 years
PRENATAL DEV. • 1st TRIMESTER (conception 3 mnths) • Zygote: fertilized egg • Embryo: zygote implants 2 mnths • Vitals dev. • heartbeat @ 5 wks, • nervous system, facial features, limb buds, cartilage bones’ 6 weeks
Fetus: @ 8 weeks • Mvmt begins @ 9 wks • 250,000 neurons/ 1 min @ 10 wks • sex organs @ 11 wks • Most organs begin to function • Limbs dev - nails & hair follicles @ 12 wks ** all organs & limbs formed - critical Period for phys. dev** 8 weeks 12 wks
2nd TRIMESTER (4 mnths 6 mnths) • Fingerprints @ 13 wks • Bones harden, more hair (white) • Eyebrows & eyelids @ 5 mnths • Baby fat is gained, baby turns • Facial features more prominent - Mouth mvmt, thumb sucking • hear mom’s voice @ 6 months 6 months 24 wks
If any physical feature isn’t ‘started’ in 1st or 2nd trimester, it won’t ever form • Organs, bones, skin, hair, etc. only develops more • Mother’s health, nutrition, & habits greatly affect baby • Chemicals in environ affect cog. & physical dev
3RD TRIMESTER (7 mnths+) • Baby stretches limbs • All organs fully functional • Rxn to sounds in environ., touch, light, mom’s stress - learning • Preferences for sounds, odors, foods, sleep patterns ** critical period for psych & lung dev. ** 7 ½ months
NEWBORNS • PHYSICAL & MOTOR • Touch – prefer soft objects & skin • Vision –can’t focus on objects up close • Hearing – speech, tone, high pitch, voices; not fully acute until 3 yrs
Smell & Taste –smell of mom; sweet • Movement – • Random, swinging movements b/c of immature neural connections in muscles • **Sensory info critical for survival, attachments, bonding, learning** • Infant failure to thrive
Reflexes: • Grasping • Sucking • Rooting
Fanning • Swimming • Startle • Stepping • *Dysfunction in reflexes can be a sign of neural disorders*
INFANCY • COGNITIVE DEV. • SENSORIMOTOR PERIOD: 0 – 2years • mental activity confined to sensory functions & motor skills • Coordination btw vision & mvmt • Active trial & error • Beginning of capacity to make mental representations
Object permanence (8 mnths) • think about things that are not there • Awareness that objects exist when not present • Perception: View themselves as separate from objects & ppl around them; recognize familiar objects & ppl; have depth perception • Still no introspective sense of self
PROMOTING COGNITIVE DEV. • stimulating environs & new experiences • neural connections • Deprivation evident by 2-3 yrs • robs w/ cog. dev: neglect, malnourishment, noise, chaos, stress, harsh/inconsistent parenting, environ. chemicals
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • internally programmed growth of a child; sequential order as muscle groups grow; fine motor skills still weak; ‘milestones’ • Unique to each kid • 2 mnths – raise head • 4 mnths – roll over & reach for stuff
7 mnths – sit up -- 8 mnths – pull up • 9 mnths – crawl -- 12-13 mnths stand alone & walk
SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Bonding occurs: emotional tie btw 2 ppl (or a person & object) • Prefer caregivers to other ppl • 6 -8 mnths = separation, stranger anxiety • Communicate feelings through body language & vocalizations • Look to parents - & pick up on expressions & body language - to see how to feel or behave in certain situations
TEMPERMENT–root of personality • i.e. active, quiet, fussy, cuddly • TRUST VS. MISTRUST: 0-1 year • learn to trust their needs will be met & the world is o.k. OR they learn to mistrust the world • interactions w/ ppl & environs; needs met • Crisis: Is the world a safe place? Can I trust ppl?
Foundation for all future emotional dev. – based on attachment to parents • Insecure attachment - Avoid or ignore caregivers; angry or reject them when they come back; inconsistent rxns • Secure attachment - Receptive to attn from caregivers; respond to & reciprocate affection • no attachment - withdrawn; anger issues; no enjoyment in others, toys, experiences; brain dysfunction & damage
ORAL STAGE: 0 - 1 ½ yrs infants seek pleasure through their mouth • Primary means of pleasure & discovery need instant gratification
Oral fixation – trait of being obsessed w/ stimulating the mouth • Causes: if weaned too early or too late; underfed; not enough oral gratification during infancy • overeating, smoking, chewing on objects, nail biting, talkative;
PHYSCIAL DEV. • Dev. more mature hand-eye coordination, balance, & fine motor skills • Physical play & role-taking play • Kids participate in athletics & playtime • Pride • cooperation • social skills
EARLY CHILDHOOD (2-6 yrs) • COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • acquire symbolic thought • Egocentric thinking • imaginative thinking • Preoperational: 2-7 years–can’t see others pt. of view or use logic; • Imaginative thinking & play (pretend) • Kids “reason” about events by guessing rather than logic
Preconventional: early- mid. childhood –wrong if you get punished. direct consequences of action; • 1) obedience – act in ways ppl tell you to in order to avoid punishment & gain rewards
Language acquisition: • ppl born with language abilities • All baby babble is the same • native language @ end of 1st year. • Critical period hypothesis • if no spoken language is learned before the age of 12, it can never be learned fully • Lang. circuits cut • brain plasticity and learning capacity!
SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV. • Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt: 1-3 years – make choices, & control themselves; more independent OR they becomes uncertain & doubt they can do things by themselves • Can I do things by myself or do I have to rely on others?
Initiative vs. Guilt: 3-5 years – enjoy accomplishments/recognition OR feel guilty about failures • Do I receive recognition for what I do? Do my activities produce desirable results?
Anal Stage: 1 ½ - 3 years –functions of elimination & cleanliness; learn to gain control of body • receive consequences from using potty (control of body) • Anal fixation - messy and self-indulgent personality or compulsive about neatness
Phallic Stage: 3-6 years - awareness of & manipulation of genitals; allowed to seek pleasure or not?; identify w/ same-sex parent • Oedipus complex – boys have desire for mom & see dad as a competitor; • Electra complex – girls have desire for dad & see mom as competitor
MID-CHILDHOOD (7-10 yrs) • COGNITIVE DEV. • Concrete Operational: 7-11 years - appropriate use of reasoning w/ concrete objects; cause & effect; thinking not completely abstract yet
Preconventional morality: mid childhood • cansee things from others’ pt. of view; helping self or immediate family • 2) fair exchange; what’s in it for me or ppl I love?
Conventional Morality: mid childhood – early teens • sensitive to what others think & want (approval); apply rules others have given them • 3) Am I good?
SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV. • Latency Stage: 6 yrs – puberty • sexual instincts repressed; focus on social & intellectual skills
Industry vs. Inferiority: 6-12 yrs • get recognition, feel pride in accomplishments, eager to learn OR feel inferior, dwell on faults, lose interest • Am I competent or worthless?
LATE CHILDHOOD (10-12 yr) • COGNITIVE DEV • Concrete Operational: 7-11 yrs • Foundation of hypothetical thinking • Egocentrism goes away • create alternatives to probs – look @ all aspects
Conventional: mid-childhood mid teens • following rules & social order; beyond thinking of self for safety & order in society • 4) If there is a law against it, it is wrong. Rules are made to protect us.
Lost Island • You were on a plane when a storm swept the plane 1500 miles off course. The radio was knocked out by lightning. The plane crash landed in the ocean w/in swimming distance of an unknown island… its not on any map or near shipping lanes. You have your cell phones, but they were ruined in the water. • ¾ of the island is rocks & cliffs. ¼ is vegetation… enough to feed you for 4 months. There is no fresh water spring. The only animals are poisonous snakes, rats, & scorpions. The waters are abundant with fish. • Take inventory of what is in your pockets, backpacks, & purses. How could you use these items to survive? (There is no way off the island) Be creative
ADOLESCENCE 12-21 years: TRANSITION STAGE