Cool Is Not Enough Listening For Music
Beyond Reason “We discover in poetry that we are participating in something which cannot be explained or apprehended by reason or understanding alone. We participate in the imaginary. We create a space for fantasy, we enter our dream life, dream time. We deepen our breathing, our mindfulness to being, our spiritual alertness.” Edward Hirsch How To Read A Poem
Neandertal Flute??? The drawing is part of an extensive musicological analysis completed by Bob Fink Webster University http://www.webster.sk.ca/greenwich/fl-compl.htm
What is the Point of Music? To Tell A Story! A Love Story A Prayer A Tale of Nature An Abstraction of Emotion or Intellect A Study of Character or Plot A Statement of Worship An Expression of Homage A Protest Against Injustice Example:TuvanThroat Singing
What is the Manipulative Goal of Music? Creation AND Relief of TENSION
What are the Fundamental Tools of Music? Rhythm Melody Harmony Polyphony……
Rhythm It don't mean a thing if it ain't got that swing, It don't mean a thing, all you've got to do is sing, It makes no difference if it's sweet or hot, Just keep that rhythm, give it everything you've got! It don't mean a thing if it ain't got that swing! Duke Ellington & Irving Mills 1932
Rhythm RHYTHMis a pattern of accentuated beats. RHYTHMis also the organic movement we witness in everyday life. “Music is built up by a succession of irregular sonic shapes that combine in various ways like the parts of a painting, sometimes hanging in the exquisite balance, sometimes joining forces to gyrate or lunge or swirl. For want of a standard term, call it PHRASING.” Robert Jourdain - Music, The Brain and Ecstasy
Rhythm METERgives order to time. It organizes music on asmall scale. PHRASINGgives order to the narrative of music. It organizes music on alarge scale. Examples: Djembe’, Gregorian Chant, Raja,
Rhythm Beat: A rate of events per minute Pulse:The organic sense of movement Meter: Rigid divisions of time – Intellectual abstraction used for analytical purposes Beat Window:How musical pulse is created Tempo:How fast Example: Marrakesh Night Market
Polyrhythm 3 beats simultaneous with 2 beats NOT a 3 beat tune NOT a 2 beat tune NOT a 5 beat tune Many combinations of beats are possible. 2,3,4, or more beat cycles may occur simultaneously Examples: Take Five, Adventures
Melody A temporal succession of musical tones. Motif:The smallest unit of complete musical thought Germ: The smallest coherent musical phrase
Melody - Motif Are Your Sleeping, Brother John? 1st motif 1st motif -repeat 2nd motif 2nd motif-repeat 3rd motif 3rd motif -repeat 4th motif -repeat 4th motif
Melody - Germ The basic musical unit within a motif is called a “germ.” Not a complete musical thought. Often repeated within a motif or shared with other motifs. A Germ within the 3rd motif of Are You Sleeping, Brother John?
Melody - Shape “… with the combination of ascending and descending scale-segments, melody approaches its real nature: the wave.” Ernest Toch The Nine Wave Shapes in Music Wave Wave with Climax Rising Wave Falling Wave Arch Bowl Rising Line Falling Line Horizontal Line
Melody Germ- The smallest musical idea Motif-A salient theme of the composition Shape-The big picture of the composition
Harmony The simultaneous occurrence of two or more different tones A CHORD - The simultaneous occurrence of three or more different tones. • Chords move music along in time in a way different from • but related to rhythm. • Chords establish the context for the melody. • Chords imply melodic direction. Examples: Da Slockit Light, Concerto in D for 2 Mandolins – Vivaldi, Largo form Xerxes - Handel, Lux Aeterna - Ligetti
Polyphony Many Sounds Polyphony is created when rhythm, melody and harmony come together in an orchestration or arrangement of a composition for more than one instrument or voice. • Counter Point: • Voices that support or oppose the idea expressed • by the melodic line. • Moves music in time and clarifies original themes • within a work. • Can take the form of melody, harmony or rhythm • and it may be any possible combination of • these three.
We Hide And Seek 0:00 Setting the Context – Building Ensemble 0:00 Ostinato of mandolin and dobro – pulse established 0:15 Banjo joins 0:30 Fiddle joins 0:40 Ensemble and pulse fully established 0:54Main Theme Introduced 1:19 Opposing Theme Introduced 1:19 Dobro lead - Note dramatic change of pulse 1:43Main Theme Variations 1:43 Mandolin lead 2:13 Dobro lead (note fiddle) 2:44Opposing Theme Revisited 2:44 Fiddle lead - Opposing Theme 3:12 Main Theme Variations 3:12 Guitar lead 3:38 Banjo lead (very jazz-like) 4:01 Fiddle lead (note voice-like, excited quality) 4:38 Exit Begins 4:38 Main Theme Restated – same as 0:54 5:02 Ostinato repeated –similar to 0:00 5:15 Dobro variations on Main Theme 6:30 Fade away
Polyphony - Example TimeListen For 0:00 Fanfare: Double cymbal crashes - Open harmony Basses enter late - establish gravis and end 0:19 Main Theme: Clear rhythmic identify - simple melodic line lots of counterpoint - abrupt end 0:45 Interlude:Chaos - tension - confusion - dissonance - no resolution - abrupt end 1:08 Main Theme Repeats: Quiet, high voices – gentle return 1:54 Tempo Gets Faster: Fresh chord announces change 2:31 High Voices:Announce change 2:32 Bass Voices: Drive the change 2:40 Fanfare: Repeats with single cymbal crashes 2:53 Dissonance:Maximum tension established 2:59 Resolution:Piece resolves in consonance Example: Aaron Copland – finale from The Red Pony
Harmony &Polyphony Examples Da Slockit Light Concerto in D for 2 Mandolins – Vivaldi Largo form Xerxes – Handel Lux Aeterna The Thrill Is Gone Ave Maria – Charles Gounod and J.S. Bach Air from Orchestral Suite No. 3 J.S. Bach In the Still of the Night Come Go With Me Blue Moon My True Story
Cool Is Not Enough Listening For Music
The Fundamental Tools of Music Rhythm Melody Harmony Polyphony……
The Manipulative Goal of Music Creation AND Relief of TENSION
The Point of Music is - To Tell A Story! A Love Story A Prayer A Tale of Nature An Abstraction of Emotion or Intellect A Study of Character or Plot A Statement of Worship An Expression of Homage A Protest Against Injustice
Tonight’s Headlines Form & Storytelling Concerto Grosso & Fugues (it is Baroque and we can’t fix it) Deaf Man Destroys Emperor’s Reputation - ennobles the rest of us An Overture, Cartoons, A Cowboy TV Show and Jingoism Soap & Grand Operas - same sentiments, different scale Ragtime, Rondos, Do Wop Music- sexuality & themale calf Controlling Mood Swings- quicker and cheaper than Prozac Murder… Tattoos… Grits and … other musical essentials
Form An educated listener judges a work of music based upon how well it represents the form it strives to attain. • Five Basic Forms: • 1. Sectional– song, rondo, ragtime, early jazz • Variation – basso ostinato, pasacaglia, • chaconne, theme and variation • 3. Fugal – fugue, concerto grosso, chorale, • prelude, motets, madrigals • 4. Sonata – sonata, symphony, concerto • Free Forms– prelude, tone poem, • contemporary jazz
Storytelling & Form • We’ll Listen & Discuss Examples of These Forms: • 1. Sectional– song, rondo, ragtime • 2. Fugal – fugue, concerto grosso • 3.Free Forms – contemporary jazz, prelude, tone poem • 4.Sonata – symphony, concerto It is impossible to separate the story from the FORM in which the tale is told.
Storytelling Linking words… melody… rhythm… harmony… polyphony… To convey a story
The William Tell Overture • Overture to the last opera written by Gioacchino Rossini. • In 1829, at the age of 37, Rossini retired to Paris and lived off • his profits and royalties from his thirty-eight operas. • William Tell is a legendary Swiss hero who became a universal • symbol of resistance to oppression. • Tell lived in a region controlled by of the bailiffs of Austrian • overlords. • Legend has it that In 1307, Tell refused to obey the commands • of Bailiff Gessler. As punishment Tell was forced to shoot • an arrow to knock an apple off his son’s head. His shot • was a success. He then lead a victorious uprising against • the Austrians. • Rossini based his opera on Friedrich von Schiller’s 1804 play • of the legend - William Tell
The William Tell Overture 0:001st theme and mood - SPRING Rhythm – free Melody somber cellos - sad 0:50 Rhythm – meter established 1:09 Rhythm – tympani roll adds tension Polyphony – note how dual voices add tension 1:42 dual voices add tension trills add tension resolution 2:342nd Theme and mood - THE STORM – gathering 3:32 THE STORM – breaks 5:19 3rd Theme and mood - the Shepherd’s Pipe 7:51 4th Theme and mood - The Calvary
Sectional Form Songs & Ragtime Strophic Form: A A A A A . . . . Examples: Edmund Fitzgerald, Blue in Green
Blue In Green 0:01 Piano Intro 0:19 Trumpet lead theme 1 1:48 Piano takes lead variation on theme 1 2:27 Sax takes lead – variation on theme 1 3:11 Piano takes lead new variation on theme a bit more excited 3:33 Trumpet returns with its variation on theme 1 4:47 Piano takes lead new variation on theme and leads out 5:30 Finish
Sectional Form Rondo Form: A B A C A B A Examples: Rondo in D Major, Arias, Ragtime, contemporary commercial music
Star of the County Down Near Banbridge town, in the County Down one morning in late July Down a boreen green came a sweet colleen and she smiled as she passed me by. She looked so sweet from her two bare feet to the sheen of her nut-brown hair. Such a winsome elf, I'd to shake myself to make sure I was really there. From Bantry Bay up to Derry Quay And from Galway to Dublin town No maid I've seen like the sweet colleen She’s the Star of the County Down. As she onward sped sure I shook my head and gazed with a feeling rare And I said, says I, to a passerby "who's that maid with the nut-brown hair?“ He smiled at me, and he says to me, "That's the gem of all Ireland's crown. That’s young Rose McCann from the banks of the Bann, She's the Star of the County Down."
Star of the County Down 0:00 Rhythm – no meter – free Melody – 1st theme - context set - meandering – mournful – plaintive 0:16 Gong announces change (percussion often predicts melodic change) 0:22 Rhythm - Chinese block 6 then 5 beats, zills or triangle Harmony - piano Polyphony – counter point on hammer dulcimer 0:51 Melody 2nd theme – the verse. Koto lead instrument 1:21 Rhythm – gong to establish repeat of 2nd theme Polyphony - hammer dulcimer descending counter point 1:37 & 1:50 Polyphony - hammer dulcimer counter point - cue of transition 1:54 Melody – 3rd theme – the Chorus - fiddle joins in unison Harmony - Change of chord supports beginning of theme 2:21 4th theme or variation of 1st theme? 2: 58 Hammer dulcimer lead melody on 2nd theme 3:27 Polyphony - Harp delivers listener to violin lead of 2st theme 3:57 Melody - Violin – mimics Hammer dulcimer descending line as transition marker 4:12 Melody -Violin “loses it” – a wailing voice 4: 43 Melody – violin runs up scale to create tension 4:58 THE NOTE!!!
Vesti La Guibba 0:00 voice recitative ends in a laugh and contemptuous statement of singers name 0:54 1st theme Vesti La Gubbia (A) 1:38 2nd theme (B) 1:56 3rd Main Theme (C) 2:30 Orchestra draws out the themes 2:52 Expression of hope - bright -things may work out 3:09 Maybe not - falling down to despair or resolution ambiguous faux ending 3:19 bass voices take us down to a hopeless end
Fugal Form • Fugue:A contrapuntal musical composition in which one • or two melodic themes are repeated or imitated by • the successively entering voices and developed in • a continuous interweaving of the voice parts into a • well-defined single structure. Concerto Grosso: An orchestral composition of the Baroque period with a small group of solo instruments contrasting with the full orchestra. Definitions from Merriam Webster WARNING!!!! A concerto grosso is N O T a concerto! Examples: Bach’s Toccata & Fugue in D Minor, Vivaldi’s Concerto for Orchestra and Cembalo in C Major RV 116
Sonata Forms Sonata:An extended composition for one or two instruments usually in three or four movements which are contrasted in rhythm and mood but related in tonality and which usually have an organic unity of sentiment and style. Symphony:A sonata written for full orchestra. Concerto:A sonata written for a single instrument with support from a full orchestra. ***The Sonata form is the most important principle of musical structure from the Classical period to the 20th century***
Sonata-Allegro Form A development of the classical era. A more open form than earlier Baroque compositional forms such as the fugue and rondo. Haydn was an early and influential advocate of the "Sonata Allegro”. Form: The Classical Era Form is – A A B A
Sonata-Allegro Form Three Major Parts Exposition: States the main thematic elements. The Development: A free-form section of the Sonata Allegro movement, usually based on themes establish in the Exposition. Recapitulation: Restates, often in a condensed form, the themes established in the Exposition. May have an expanded coda section. May rearrange the themes stated in the Exposition.
Sonata-Allegro Form Beethoven 5th Symphony in C minor & Napoleon ’s War
Beethoven’s 5th Symphony First Movement TimePartWhat to Listen for Exposition 0:00 a bold theme - memorable 0:44 b lyrical theme 1:07 c bold theme 1:26 a 2:10 b exact restatement of parts a, b, c 2:32 c Development 2:50 a b musical musings on themes of 5.10 c the exposition Recapitulation 6:53 a 7:01 b brief restatement of themes of 7:05 cthe exposition
How to Listen to a Live Concert Prepare Yourself!!! • Find out what the musical program is before • you go. • Listen to the music before you attend the concert . 3.Read about the composer - his life and times - his context. 4. Read about what the composer was trying to accomplish through his music. 5. Once in the concert hall, read the program guide carefully and thoroughly .
Contents of a Report on a Live Concert of Art Music 1. Identify the Composer, Performers and the Compositions. 2.Describe the Form of the Work(s). 3. Provide the Reader with a Context for the Music. 4. Describe the Artistic Heritage of the Music. 5. Explain the Affective Content of the Music. 6. Describe the Technical Devices Employed to Convey the Message of the Music. 7. Express an opinion on the Quality of the Composition. 8. Express an opinion on the Quality of the Performance.
Music It Comes down to …. Anatoly On Horseback and “…something which cannot be explained or apprehended by reason or understanding alone…”