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Cool Is Not Enough Listening For Music Beyond Reason “ We discover in poetry that we are participating in something which cannot be explained or apprehended by reason or understanding alone. We participate in the imaginary. We create a space for fantasy,

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Cool Is Not Enough

Listening For Music


Beyond Reason

“We discover in poetry that we are

participating in something which

cannot be explained or apprehended

by reason or understanding alone.

We participate in the imaginary.

We create a space for fantasy,

we enter our dream life, dream

time. We deepen our breathing,

our mindfulness to being,

our spiritual alertness.”

Edward Hirsch

How To Read A Poem


Neandertal Flute???

The drawing is part of an extensive musicological analysis completed by

Bob Fink

Webster University


What is the Point of Music?

To Tell A Story!

A Love Story

A Prayer

A Tale of Nature

An Abstraction of Emotion or Intellect

A Study of Character or Plot

A Statement of Worship

An Expression of Homage

A Protest Against Injustice

Example:TuvanThroat Singing


What is the Manipulative

Goal of Music?







What are the Fundamental

Tools of Music?







It don't mean a thing if it ain't got that swing,

It don't mean a thing, all you've got to do is sing,

It makes no difference if it's sweet or hot,

Just keep that rhythm, give it everything you've got!

It don't mean a thing if it ain't got that swing!

Duke Ellington & Irving Mills




RHYTHMis a pattern of accentuated beats.

RHYTHMis also the organic movement we witness

in everyday life.

“Music is built up by a succession of irregular sonic

shapes that combine in various ways like the

parts of a painting, sometimes hanging in the

exquisite balance, sometimes joining forces to

gyrate or lunge or swirl. For want of a

standard term, call it PHRASING.”

Robert Jourdain - Music, The Brain and Ecstasy



METERgives order to time. It organizes music on

asmall scale.

PHRASINGgives order to the narrative of music.

It organizes music on alarge scale.

Examples: Djembe’, Gregorian Chant, Raja,



Beat: A rate of events per minute

Pulse:The organic sense of movement

Meter: Rigid divisions of time –

Intellectual abstraction used for

analytical purposes

Beat Window:How musical pulse

is created

Tempo:How fast

Example: Marrakesh Night Market



3 beats simultaneous with 2 beats

NOT a 3 beat tune

NOT a 2 beat tune

NOT a 5 beat tune

Many combinations of beats are possible.

2,3,4, or more beat cycles may

occur simultaneously

Examples: Take Five, Adventures



A temporal succession of

musical tones.

Motif:The smallest unit of complete

musical thought

Germ: The smallest coherent musical



Melody - Motif

Are Your Sleeping, Brother John?

1st motif

1st motif -repeat

2nd motif

2nd motif-repeat

3rd motif

3rd motif -repeat

4th motif -repeat

4th motif


Melody - Germ

The basic musical unit within a

motif is called a “germ.”

 Not a complete musical thought.

 Often repeated within a motif or

shared with other motifs.

A Germ within the 3rd motif of

Are You Sleeping, Brother John?


Melody - Shape

“… with the combination of ascending and

descending scale-segments, melody

approaches its real nature: the wave.”

Ernest Toch

The Nine Wave Shapes in Music

Wave Wave with Climax

Rising Wave Falling Wave

Arch Bowl

Rising Line Falling Line

Horizontal Line



Germ- The smallest musical idea

Motif-A salient theme of the composition

Shape-The big picture of the composition



The simultaneous occurrence of

two or more different tones

A CHORD - The simultaneous occurrence of

three or more different tones.

  • Chords move music along in time in a way different from
  • but related to rhythm.
  • Chords establish the context for the melody.
  • Chords imply melodic direction.

Examples: Da Slockit Light, Concerto in D for 2 Mandolins – Vivaldi,

Largo form Xerxes - Handel, Lux Aeterna - Ligetti



Many Sounds

Polyphony is created when rhythm, melody and

harmony come together in an orchestration

or arrangement of a composition for more

than one instrument or voice.

  • Counter Point:
  • Voices that support or oppose the idea expressed
  • by the melodic line.
  • Moves music in time and clarifies original themes
  • within a work.
  • Can take the form of melody, harmony or rhythm
  • and it may be any possible combination of
  • these three.

We Hide And Seek

0:00 Setting the Context – Building Ensemble

0:00 Ostinato of mandolin and dobro – pulse established

0:15 Banjo joins

0:30 Fiddle joins

0:40 Ensemble and pulse fully established

0:54Main Theme Introduced

1:19 Opposing Theme Introduced

1:19 Dobro lead - Note dramatic change of pulse

1:43Main Theme Variations

1:43 Mandolin lead

2:13 Dobro lead (note fiddle)

2:44Opposing Theme Revisited

2:44 Fiddle lead - Opposing Theme

3:12 Main Theme Variations

3:12 Guitar lead

3:38 Banjo lead (very jazz-like)

4:01 Fiddle lead (note voice-like, excited quality)

4:38 Exit Begins

4:38 Main Theme Restated – same as 0:54

5:02 Ostinato repeated –similar to 0:00

5:15 Dobro variations on Main Theme

6:30 Fade away


Polyphony - Example

TimeListen For

0:00 Fanfare: Double cymbal crashes - Open harmony

Basses enter late - establish gravis and end

0:19 Main Theme: Clear rhythmic identify - simple melodic line

lots of counterpoint - abrupt end

0:45 Interlude:Chaos - tension - confusion - dissonance -

no resolution - abrupt end

1:08 Main Theme Repeats: Quiet, high voices – gentle return

1:54 Tempo Gets Faster: Fresh chord announces change

2:31 High Voices:Announce change

2:32 Bass Voices: Drive the change

2:40 Fanfare: Repeats with single cymbal crashes

2:53 Dissonance:Maximum tension established

2:59 Resolution:Piece resolves in consonance

Example: Aaron Copland – finale from The Red Pony


Harmony &Polyphony


Da Slockit Light

Concerto in D for 2 Mandolins – Vivaldi

Largo form Xerxes – Handel

Lux Aeterna

The Thrill Is Gone

Ave Maria – Charles Gounod and J.S. Bach

Air from Orchestral Suite No. 3 J.S. Bach

In the Still of the Night

Come Go With Me

Blue Moon

My True Story


Cool Is Not Enough

Listening For Music


The Fundamental Tools of Music






The Manipulative Goal of Music







The Point of Music is -

To Tell A Story!

A Love Story

A Prayer

A Tale of Nature

An Abstraction of Emotion or Intellect

A Study of Character or Plot

A Statement of Worship

An Expression of Homage

A Protest Against Injustice


Tonight’s Headlines

Form & Storytelling

Concerto Grosso & Fugues (it is Baroque and we can’t fix it)

Deaf Man Destroys Emperor’s Reputation - ennobles the rest of us

An Overture, Cartoons, A Cowboy TV Show and Jingoism

Soap & Grand Operas - same sentiments, different scale

Ragtime, Rondos, Do Wop Music- sexuality & themale calf

Controlling Mood Swings- quicker and cheaper than Prozac



Grits and …

other musical essentials



An educated listener judges a work of music

based upon how well it represents the

form it strives to attain.

  • Five Basic Forms:
  • 1. Sectional– song, rondo, ragtime, early jazz
  • Variation – basso ostinato, pasacaglia,
  • chaconne, theme and variation
  • 3. Fugal – fugue, concerto grosso, chorale,
  • prelude, motets, madrigals
  • 4. Sonata – sonata, symphony, concerto
  • Free Forms– prelude, tone poem,
  • contemporary jazz

Storytelling & Form

  • We’ll Listen & Discuss Examples of These Forms:
  • 1. Sectional– song, rondo, ragtime
  • 2. Fugal – fugue, concerto grosso
  • 3.Free Forms – contemporary jazz, prelude, tone poem
  • 4.Sonata – symphony, concerto

It is impossible to separate the story from

the FORM in which the tale is told.









To convey a story


The William Tell Overture

  • Overture to the last opera written by Gioacchino Rossini.
  • In 1829, at the age of 37, Rossini retired to Paris and lived off
  • his profits and royalties from his thirty-eight operas.
  • William Tell is a legendary Swiss hero who became a universal
  • symbol of resistance to oppression.
  • Tell lived in a region controlled by of the bailiffs of Austrian
    • overlords.
  • Legend has it that In 1307, Tell refused to obey the commands
  • of Bailiff Gessler. As punishment Tell was forced to shoot
  • an arrow to knock an apple off his son’s head. His shot
  • was a success. He then lead a victorious uprising against
  • the Austrians.
  • Rossini based his opera on Friedrich von Schiller’s 1804 play
  • of the legend - William Tell

The William Tell Overture

0:001st theme and mood - SPRING

Rhythm – free

Melody somber cellos - sad

0:50 Rhythm – meter established

1:09 Rhythm – tympani roll adds tension

Polyphony – note how dual voices add tension

1:42 dual voices add tension

trills add tension resolution

2:342nd Theme and mood - THE STORM – gathering

3:32 THE STORM – breaks

5:19 3rd Theme and mood - the Shepherd’s Pipe

7:51 4th Theme and mood - The Calvary


Sectional Form

Songs & Ragtime

Strophic Form:

A A A A A . . . .

Examples: Edmund Fitzgerald, Blue in Green


Blue In Green

0:01 Piano Intro

0:19 Trumpet lead theme 1

1:48 Piano takes lead variation on theme 1

2:27 Sax takes lead – variation on theme 1

3:11 Piano takes lead new variation on theme a bit

more excited

3:33 Trumpet returns with its variation on theme 1

4:47 Piano takes lead new variation on theme and

leads out

5:30 Finish


Sectional Form

Rondo Form:


Examples: Rondo in D Major, Arias, Ragtime, contemporary commercial music


Star of the County Down

Near Banbridge town, in the County Down one morning in late July

Down a boreen green came a sweet colleen and she smiled as she passed me by.

She looked so sweet from her two bare feet to the sheen of her nut-brown hair.

Such a winsome elf, I'd to shake myself to make sure I was really there.

From Bantry Bay up to Derry Quay

And from Galway to Dublin town

No maid I've seen like the sweet colleen

She’s the Star of the County Down.

As she onward sped sure I shook my head and gazed with a feeling rare

And I said, says I, to a passerby "who's that maid with the nut-brown hair?“

He smiled at me, and he says to me, "That's the gem of all Ireland's crown.

That’s young Rose McCann from the banks of the Bann, She's the Star of the

County Down."


Star of the County Down

0:00 Rhythm – no meter – free

Melody – 1st theme - context set - meandering – mournful – plaintive

0:16 Gong announces change (percussion often predicts melodic change)

0:22 Rhythm - Chinese block 6 then 5 beats, zills or triangle

Harmony - piano

Polyphony – counter point on hammer dulcimer

0:51 Melody 2nd theme – the verse. Koto lead instrument

1:21 Rhythm – gong to establish repeat of 2nd theme

Polyphony - hammer dulcimer descending counter point

1:37 & 1:50 Polyphony - hammer dulcimer counter point - cue of transition

1:54 Melody – 3rd theme – the Chorus - fiddle joins in unison

Harmony - Change of chord supports beginning of theme

2:21 4th theme or variation of 1st theme?

2: 58 Hammer dulcimer lead melody on 2nd theme

3:27 Polyphony - Harp delivers listener to violin lead of 2st theme

3:57 Melody - Violin – mimics Hammer dulcimer descending line as

transition marker

4:12 Melody -Violin “loses it” – a wailing voice

4: 43 Melody – violin runs up scale to create tension

4:58 THE NOTE!!!


Vesti La Guibba

0:00 voice recitative ends in a laugh and contemptuous

statement of singers name

0:54 1st theme Vesti La Gubbia (A)

1:38 2nd theme (B)

1:56 3rd Main Theme (C)

2:30 Orchestra draws out the themes

2:52 Expression of hope - bright -things may work out

3:09 Maybe not - falling down to despair or resolution

ambiguous faux ending

3:19 bass voices take us down to a hopeless end


Fugal Form

  • Fugue:A contrapuntal musical composition in which one
  • or two melodic themes are repeated or imitated by
  • the successively entering voices and developed in
  • a continuous interweaving of the voice parts into a
  • well-defined single structure.

Concerto Grosso: An orchestral composition of

the Baroque period with a small group

of solo instruments contrasting with

the full orchestra.

Definitions from Merriam Webster

WARNING!!!! A concerto grosso is N O T a concerto!

Examples: Bach’s Toccata & Fugue in D Minor,

Vivaldi’s Concerto for Orchestra and Cembalo in C Major RV 116


Sonata Forms

Sonata:An extended composition for one or two

instruments usually in three or four movements

which are contrasted in rhythm and mood but

related in tonality and which usually have an

organic unity of sentiment and style.

Symphony:A sonata written for full orchestra.

Concerto:A sonata written for a single instrument

with support from a full orchestra.

***The Sonata form is the most important principle of musical structure from the Classical period to the 20th century***


Sonata-Allegro Form

 A development of the classical era.

 A more open form than earlier Baroque

compositional forms such as the

fugue and rondo.

Haydn was an early and influential advocate

of the "Sonata Allegro”.

Form: The Classical Era Form is – A A B A


Sonata-Allegro Form

Three Major Parts

Exposition: States the main thematic elements.

The Development: A free-form section of the Sonata Allegro movement, usually based on themes establish in the Exposition.

Recapitulation: Restates, often in a condensed

form, the themes established in the Exposition.

May have an expanded coda section. May rearrange

the themes stated in the Exposition.


Sonata-Allegro Form

Beethoven 5th Symphony in C minor


Napoleon ’s War


Beethoven’s 5th Symphony

First Movement

TimePartWhat to Listen for


0:00 a bold theme - memorable

0:44 b lyrical theme

1:07 c bold theme

1:26 a

2:10 b exact restatement of parts a, b, c

2:32 c


2:50 a

b musical musings on themes of

5.10 c the exposition


6:53 a

7:01 b brief restatement of themes of

7:05 cthe exposition


How to Listen to a Live Concert

Prepare Yourself!!!

  • Find out what the musical program is before
  • you go.
  • Listen to the music before you attend the concert .

3.Read about the composer - his life and times -

his context.

4. Read about what the composer was trying to

accomplish through his music.

5. Once in the concert hall, read the program

guide carefully and thoroughly .


Contents of a Report on a

Live Concert of Art Music

1. Identify the Composer, Performers and the Compositions.

2.Describe the Form of the Work(s).

3. Provide the Reader with a Context for the Music.

4. Describe the Artistic Heritage of the Music.

5. Explain the Affective Content of the Music.

6. Describe the Technical Devices Employed to Convey

the Message of the Music.

7. Express an opinion on the Quality of the Composition.

8. Express an opinion on the Quality of the Performance.



It Comes down to ….

Anatoly On Horseback


“…something which

cannot be explained or apprehended

by reason or understanding alone…”