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B. Diversity 3. Relationships with Productivity a. Productivity increases diversity b. Diversity increases productivity B. Diversity 3. Relationships with Productivity a. Productivity increases diversity b. Diversity increases productivity - Sampling Effects

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slide1

B. Diversity

3. Relationships with Productivity

a. Productivity increases diversity

b. Diversity increases productivity

slide2

B. Diversity

3. Relationships with Productivity

a. Productivity increases diversity

b. Diversity increases productivity

- Sampling Effects

More diverse communities are more likely to contain the most productive species, and thus raise the total productivity.

slide3

B. Diversity

3. Relationships with Productivity

a. Productivity increases diversity

b. Diversity increases productivity

- Niche Complementarity

More diverse communities are more likely to contain different types of species that use different types of energy... thus more efficiently harvesting the available energy

slide4

Monoculture

Polyculture

They all need the same things at the same concentrations; have to place them far apart to reduce competition.

Combinations of different plants can be planted at higher density, and they use different "niches" and coexist. Even if abundance of "most productive" species, drops, this loss can be offset.

slide5

B. Diversity

3. Relationships with Productivity

a. Productivity increases diversity

b. Diversity increases productivity

- Positive Interactions

More diverse communities may contain species that benefit other species, and thus increase the productivity of the whole community

slide6

Monoculture

Polyculture

without beans

with beans

They all need the same things at the same concentrations; have to place them far apart to reduce competition.

Nitrogen fixing legumes (beans) nutrify the soil, increasing the growth of other plants

slide7

Diversity and Productivity in a Long-Term Grassland Experiment Tilman, et al. 2001. Science 294. 843 - 845

Dotted line is biomass in a monoculture of the most productive species. Higher productivity than this, at higher richness values, means nich complementarity or positive effects must be occurring.

slide8

- Effects of Genetic Diversity

Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313: 966-968.

Methods:

- 63 1m2 plots, each containing 12 plants of all goldenrod.

- The plants in a plot represent either 1, 3, 6, or 12 genotypes, randomly selected from a pool of 21 genotypes.

slide9

- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313: 966-968.

Results:

1: ANPP correlated with number of genotypes in plot.

slide10

- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313: 966-968.

Results:

1: ANPP correlated with number of genotypes in plot.

2: Total insect species diversity, and diversity of herbivores and predators, correlate with ANPP and number of genotypes per plot.

slide11

- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313: 966-968.

Results:

3: ANPP increase is NOT due to a sampling effect, but due to niche complementarity among genotypes

slide12

- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313: 966-968.

Results:

4: Increase in herbivorous insects due to both MORE food (ANPP) and DIFFERENT food (niche differentiation).

slide13

- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313: 966-968.

Results:

5: Increase in predator richness due to increase in herbivore richness, not AMOUNT of food.

slide14

- Example Crutsinger, et al. 2006. Science 313: 966-968.

Conclusions:

ANPP increased with genetic diversity.

Diversity in higher trophic levels increased with increased ANPP and greater genetic diversity.

So, genetic variation WITHIN species, and not just diversity among species, may be critical to the conservation of productive and species-rich communities.

slide15

I. Climate

II. Biomes

III. Productivity, Diversity, and Stability

A. Productivity

B. Diversity

C. Stability

slide16

C. Stability

1. Types

slide17

C. Stability

1. Types

- "resistance to change"

slide18

C. Stability

1. Types

- "resistance to change"

- "resilience after change"

slide19

C. Stability

1. Types

2. Relationships with diversity

slide20

C. Stability

1. Types

2. Relationships with diversity

- more diverse communities are less susceptible to single "types of disturbance" - (a pest, a flood, a drought) - because the many species are unlikely to be sensitive to the same thing.

slide21

C. Stability

1. Types

2. Relationships with diversity

- more diverse communities are less susceptible to single "types of disturbance" - (a pest, a flood, a drought) - because the many species are unlikely to be sensitive to the same thing.

monoculture - sensitive to one pest

Diversity increases resistance

slide22

C. Stability

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges. Loreau, et al. 2001. Science 294: 804 - 808

slide23

C. Stability

1. Types

2. Relationships with diversity

- diverse communities may recover more rapidly, too (resilience).... but they may not.

Fisheries ... yes

Rain forest... maybe not

slide24

Stimulate condensation and precipitation

Volatiles released

Rainforests feed themselves and water themselves.

Decomposition rapid

Absorption rapid

slide25

CUT FOREST DOWN

Select for fire-adapted grasses.... rainforest doesn't come back....

REDUCE RAINFALL... REDUCE NUTRIENTS

INCREASE FIRE

slide26

RAINFOREST

(wet, few fires)

"Multiple Stable States"

GRASSLAND

(dry, many fires)

slide27

I. Climate

II. Biomes

III. Productivity, Diversity, and Stability

A. Productivity

B. Diversity

C. Stability

D. Summary

slide28

D. Summary

We are dependent on the environment for food and resources. Ideally, we would like a STABLE, PRODUCTIVE supply of these resources.... right??

FEAST

FAMINE

slide29

D. Summary

(We don't want "boom and bust", "feast and famine" scenarios....)

FEAST

FAMINE

slide30

D. Summary

We are dependent on the environment for food and resources. Ideally, we would like a STABLE, PRODUCTIVE supply of these resources.... right??

(We don't want "boom and bust", "feast and famine" scenarios....)

STABILITY

?

PRODUCTIVITY

slide31

D. Summary

We are dependent on the environment for food and resources. Ideally, we would like a STABLE, PRODUCTIVE supply of these resources.... right??

(We don't want "boom and bust", "feast and famine" scenarios....)

STABILITY

DIVERSITY

..... right......

PRODUCTIVITY