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1942. 1945. America in a World at War. World War II Without America 1931/1937 - Manchuria 1933 - Rise of Hitler 1935 - Mussolini and Ethiopia 1936-1937 - Spanish Civil War 1938 – Anschluss with Austria 1938 - Munich and Invasion on Czechoslovakia

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america in a world at war

1942

1945

America in a World at War

slide2

World War II Without America

1931/1937 - Manchuria

1933 - Rise of Hitler

1935 - Mussolini and Ethiopia

1936-1937 - Spanish Civil War

1938 – Anschluss with Austria

1938 - Munich and Invasion on Czechoslovakia

1939 – Invasion of Poland

1939 – Hitler-Stalin Pact

1940 – Capitulation of France

1940 - Battle of Britain

1940 - Invasion of Soviet Union

1941 - Japan Joins the Axis

1941 - Pearl Harbor Attack

slide3
From Neutrality to Intervention
    • The Campaign of 1940
    • Neutrality Abandoned
    • The Road to Pearl Harbor
      • Invasion of Vietnam
      • December 7, 1941
slide6

Prosperity and the Rights of Labor

  • The American Economy in Wartime
    • Stabilizing the Boom and Mobilizing Production

The American Economy in Wartime

Woman aircraft worker, Vega Aircraft Corporation, Burbank, Calif. (Library of Congress)

slide7
Race and Gender in Wartime America
  • African Americans and the War
    • Deployed and Segregated (400,000)
    • Home Front

A. Philip Randolph

Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC)

slide8
Race and Gender in Wartime America
  • Mexican-American War Workers
  • Sex and War

Washington, D.C. Soldier inspecting a couple of "zoot suits" at the Uline Arena during

Woody Herman's Orchestra engagement there (Library of Congress)

slide9
Race and Gender in Wartime America
  • The Internment of Japanese Americans

The evacuation of the Japanese Americans from West Coast areas under U.S. Army war emergency order. Japanese Americans going to camp at Owens Valley gather around baggage car at the old Santa Fe Station (Library of Congress)

slide10
Race and Gender in Wartime America
    • Chinese Americans and the War
      • Repeal of Exclusion Acts
    • Women and Children in Wartime
      • Increase in Female Work Force
      • WAACs and WAVEs
      • Latch-key children
slide13
The Defeat of the Axis-East
    • The Pacific Offensive
slide14

World War II Fatalities

Country

Total circa 61 Million

Military

Civilian

Total

Soviet Union

8,668,000

16,900,000

25,568,000

China

1,324,000

10,000,000

11,324,000

Germany

3,250,000

3,810,000

7,060,000

Poland

850,000

6,000,000

6,850,000

Japan

1,506,000

300,000

1,806,000

Yugoslavia

300,000

1,400,000

1,700,000

Rumania*

520,000

465,000

985,000

France*

340,000

470,000

810,000

Hungary*

750,000

Austria

380,000

145,000

525,000

Greece*

520,000

Italy

330,000

80,000

410,000

Czechoslovakia

400,000

Great Britain

326,000

62,000

388,000

USA

295,000

295,000

Holland

14,000

236,000

250,000

Belgium

10,000

75,000

85,000

Finland

79,000

79,000

Canada

42,000

42,000

India

36,000

***

36,000

Australia

29,000

29,000

Spain**

12,000

10,000

22,000

Bulgaria

19,000

2,000

21,000

New Zealand

12,000

12,000

South Africa

9,000

9,000

Norway

5,000

5,000

Denmark

4,000

4,000

slide15
The Defeat of the Axis
    • The Manhattan Project and Atomic Warfare
  • Debating the Past:

THE DECISION TO DROP THE ATOMIC BOMB

slide16

Immigration to the

United States*

(1936­1945)

1936 -- 36,329

1937 -- 50,244

1938 -- 67,895

1939 -- 82,998

1940 -- 70,756

1941 -- 51,776

1942 -- 28,781

1943 -- 23,725

1944 -- 28,551

1945 -- 38,119

America and the Holocaust

slide19

The Legacy of World War II

Surrender of National Sovereignty?

  • World War II and Human Rights
  • Post War Economic Interdependence
  • Post War Collective Security
slide20

THE FOUR FREEDOMS

delivered by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, on January 6, 1941

The first is freedom of speech and expression --everywhere in the world.

The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way-- everywhere in the world.

The third is freedom from want, which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants --everywhere in the world.

The fourth is freedom from fear, which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor --anywhere in the world.

slide22

Atlantic Charter

AUGUST 14, 1941

The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world.

First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other;

Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned;

Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them;

Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity;

Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security;

Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want;

Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance;

Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force.

slide23

PREAMBLE

TO THE

CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS

26 June 1945

WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED

to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

slide25

The Yamashita Trial

  • The International Military Tribunal
  • The Tokyo Trials
  • Subsequent Cases Under Control Council No. 10
  • National Trials
slide26

Principles of the Nuremberg Tribunal, United Nations, 1950

  • Principle I Any person who commits an act which constitutes a crime under international law is responsible therefor and liable to punishment.
  • Principle I IThe fact that internal law does not impose a penalty for an act which constitutes a crime under international law does not relieve the person who committed the act from responsibility under international law.
  • Principle III The fact that a person who committed an act which constitutes a crime under international law acted as Head of State or responsible Government official does not relieve him from responsibility under international law.
  • Principle IV The fact that a person acted pursuant to order of his Government or of a superior does not relieve him from responsibility under international law, provided a moral choice was in fact possible to him.
  • Principle V Any person charged with a crime under international law has the right to a fair trial on the facts and law.
  • Principle Vl The crimes hereinafter set out are punishable as crimes under; international law:
  • Crimes against peace: Planning, preparation, initiation or waging of a war of aggression or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances; ii. Participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the acts mentioned under (i).
  • War crimes: Violations of the laws or customs of war which include, but are not limited to, murder, ill-treatment or deportation to slave-labor or for any other purpose of civilian population of or in occupied territory, murder or illtreatment of prisoners of war, of persons on the seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of cities, towns, or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity.
  • Crimes against humanity: Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhuman acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime.
  • Principle VII Complicity in the commission of a crime against peace, a war crime, or a crime against humanity as set forth in Principles VI is a crime under international law.
the universal declaration of human rights preamble
The Universal Declaration of Human RightsPREAMBLE

Adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution 217A (III) of 10 December 1948

 WHEREAS recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

   WHEREAS disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,   WHEREAS it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

   WHEREAS it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

   WHEREAS the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

   WHEREAS Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,   WHEREAS a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

slide28

The Bretton Woods Agreements

Articles of Agreement of the International Bank forReconstruction and Development, July 22, 1944

  • By signing the agreement, nations were submitting their exchange rates to international disciplines. This amounted to a significant surrender of national sovereignty to an international organization.
  • A nation does not have to resort to deflating the domestic economy when faced with chronic deficits.
  • The dollar was the numeraire of the system, i.e., it was the standard to which every other currency was pegged. Accordingly, the U.S. did not have the power to set the exchange rate between the dollar and any other currency. Keynes described the Bretton Woods system as "the exact opposite of the gold standard."
  • World Bank System
slide29

OBJECTIVES

  • A thorough study of Chapter 28 should enable you to understand:
  • The effects of American participation in the war on the Depression and the New Deal.
  • The changes that wartime involvement brought for women and racial and ethnic minorities and for regional development.
  • The contribution of the U.S. military to victory in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific.
  • The significance of the asymmetric casualty between both Allied and Axis powers.
  • The action taken by America and its allies to address the Holocaust before and after the war.
  • The decision to use the atomic bomb by the Truman Administration.
  • The official ideology of the war and the planning for the establishment of an international infrastructure for the post-war world.