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Structuralism—Wilhelm Wundt Definition: School of Psychology that stresses the basic units of experience and combinations in which they occur. Wilhelm Wundt: Physiologist and Philosopher Founded the first experimental psychology laboratory in 1879—Leipzig Lab. Argued that the mind must be studied objectively and scientifically. Main concern was with techniques used for uncovering natural laws of the human mind—HE WAS IN SEARCH FOR THE BASIC UNIT OF THOUGHT.
Structuralism--Titchener • Student of the Leipzig lab • Viewed that human conscious experience could be understood by breaking it down into components: • Physical sensations (lights & sounds) • Affections of feelings • Images (memory and dreams) • Psychology’s role is to identify these elements and show how they are combined within the conscious mind. • Titchener’s approach: • Train subjects in introspection and reporting techniques • INTROSPECTION: looking inside oneself and try to describe what’s going on—understanding oneself. • Trained observers introspected and reported what they experienced • Try to formulate general theories based on their subjects’ reports.
Functionalism—William James • Definition: Theory of mental life and behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to function in its environment. • Influenced by Charles Darwin and his theory of natural selection in the 19th century. • William James: • The first American-born psychologist • Studied chemistry, physiology, anatomy, biology and medicine. • Combined his studies of physiology and philosophy to create psychology. • First psychology class at Harvard University—concluded that pre-sensations without associations simply did not exist.
Functionalism—William James JAMES SUGGESTED THAT WHEN WE REPEAT SOMETHING SEVERAL TIMES, OUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE CHANGED SO THAT EACH TIME WE OPEN A DOOR, IT IS EASIER TO OPEN THAN IT WAS LAST TIME.
Gestalt Psychology • Definition: School of Psychology that studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns • Short lived—people didn’t really see its potential. • Approaches structuralism from a different angle. Example: When we see a tree, we see just that, a tree, not a series of branches.
Behaviorism—John Watson • Definition: School of psychology that studies only observable and measurable behavior. • John Watson: • You cannot define conscious any more than you can define a soul. • You cannot locate or measure consciousness, and therefore it cannot be the object of scientific study. • Studies observable, measurable behavior and nothing more. • Ivan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning • Watson’s Experiment with Little Albert and the white rats (happy 11 month old conditioned to be afraid of white rats) • Mary Cover Jones (1924) eliminating fears through conditioning (Peter Experiment)
Psychoanalysis—Sigmund Freud • Medical Doctor/Neurologist • Studied hypnosis and found the “unconscious” • Published The Interpretation of Dreams • Believed that much of our behavior is governed by hidden motives and unconscious desires. • Maintained that many unconscious desires and conflicts are sexual. • Believed that childhood experiences determined adult personality.
Psychoanalysis—Neo-Freudians • Carl Jung • Alfred Adler • Erik Erikson • Karen Horney • Believed in the basics of psychoanalysis, but strayed from some of Freud’s ideas on sexual desires
Behaviorial—B.F. Skinner • Agreed with Watson that psychology should be only observable and measurable behavior • BIG DIFFERENCE: He used reinforcement • Reinforcement: anything that follows a response and makes that response more likely to occur. • Example: • Behavior: you get an “A” on the first Psych test • Reinforcer: Your parents give you $100 • Result: You strive to get an “A” on all other Psych tests, hoping for the same reinforcer.
Humanistic Psychology • Definition: School of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing one’s full human potential. • Goal: To ensure mental healthiness of individuals and develop therapeutic techniques. • Psychologists: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
Cognitive Psychology • Definition: School of psychology devoted to the study of mental processes generally. • Goal: To explore the mental processes involved in judgment, decision making, and other aspects of complex thought.
Biological • Focuses on how our biology and biochemistry influences behavior • Neurobiology is essential- study the brain! • The field contributes to the understanding of many medical disorders as well -Parkinson’s, Huntingdon’s and Alzheimer’s disease, Autism, substance abuse
Which school is the best? • YOU DECIDE! • Let’s see what happens when Billy goes to the doctor…