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Hoover, FDR, and the Great Depression. Herbert Hoover and Voluntarism. Herbert Hoover. Grew up in a poor family in a small Iowa town Trained as a mining engineer Ran U.S. Food Administration during WWI Promoted government-business partnerships Elected President as a Republican in 1928.

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Hoover, FDR, and the Great Depression

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herbert hoover
Herbert Hoover
  • Grew up in a poor family in a small Iowa town
  • Trained as a mining engineer
  • Ran U.S. Food Administration during WWI
  • Promoted government-business partnerships
  • Elected President as a Republican in 1928
voluntarism or volunteerism
“Voluntarism” (or “Volunteerism”)
  • People are responsible for helping themselves
  • No direct federal government aid for the poor
  • Communities should work together to help the poor
  • Keep the budget balanced – no deficit spending
  • Prosperity “trickles down” from businesses to everyone else
hoover s policies the early years
Hoover’s Policies – The Early Years
  • Asked business not to cut jobs or wages
  • Reduced taxes to boost consumer demand
  • Urged the wealthy to give to charity
  • Asked state government to increase aid for the poor
  • Constant optimism – tried to restore confidence in the economy
problem this didn t work
Problem: this didn’t work
  • Unemployment and homelessness continued to rise
  • Local governments and charities ran out of money
  • Hoover became increasingly unpopular
    • Hoovervilles = shanty towns
    • Hoover Houses = cardboard boxes
    • Hoover Heaters = campfires
hoover s policies the later years
Hoover’s Policies – The Later Years
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation
    • Created 1932
    • Provided loans to banks, railroads, big businesses
    • Exemplified trickle-down economics
  • Hoover Dam
    • Massive public works project on the Colorado River
    • Created jobs in a depressed area
the bonus army
The Bonus Army
  • After WWI, Congress promised cash payments to veterans in 1945
  • The Depression left many veterans unemployed
  • Summer 1932: “Bonus Army” of 15,000 veterans marched to Washington, D.C., demanding immediate payment
the bonus army continued
The Bonus Army, continued
  • Bonus Army camps out in Washington
  • July 1932: Hoover orders evacuation of Bonus Army
  • July 28:U.S. Army forcibly evicts Bonus Army
  • Negative publicity destroyed Hoover’s re-election campaign
the 1932 election
The 1932 Election
  • Why would Hoover be unpopular?
    • Economy still hasn’t recovered
    • People think Hoover hasn’t done enough
    • Bonus Army is terrible publicity
  • What do you think people are looking for?
    • More decisive, drastic action
    • Someone who understands them
franklin delano roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Born into a wealthy, well-connected New York family
  • Disabled by polio in his forties
  • Elected president as a Democrat in 1932
  • Promised a “New Deal” to solve the Depression

The country needs, and unless I mistake its temper, the country demands bold, persistent experimentation. It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something.

-FDR, 1932

How does this differ from Hoover’s philosophy?

result the new deal
Result: The New Deal
  • Date: 1933-1938
  • Definition: series of ambitious federal programs with the goal of ending the Depression
  • Significance
    • Helped end the Depression and reduce unemployment
    • Radically expanded the government’s role in economic life
principles of the new deal
Principles of the New Deal
  • Relief – help the needy
  • Recovery – end the Depression
  • Reform – change the economy so that the Depression can’t happen again
fireside chats
Fireside Chats
  • Date: 1933-1944
  • Series of radio addresses by FDR on national issues and proposed laws
  • Significance
    • Helped build support for New Deal programs
    • Encouraged Americans to feel closer to the President
fireside chats1
Fireside Chats
  • How does FDR use the radio to gain the trust of his listeners?
new deal policies
New Deal Policies
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
  • National Recovery Administration (NRA)
  • Public Works Administration (PWA)
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA)
  • Social Security Administration (SSA)