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Hoover and Hard Times: The Great Depression. 1929-1933. Middle-Class Workers & Families . Unemployment rates rose to 25% White collar workers were not as much affected as much as industrial workers and farmers. “Use it up, wear it out, make it do, or do without.”

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middle class workers families
Middle-Class Workers & Families
  • Unemployment rates rose to 25%
  • White collar workers were not as much affected as much as industrial workers and farmers.
  • “Use it up, wear it out, make it do, or do without.”
  • Women cut back on household expenses.
  • Even though most income of families fell, it was not so bad because of the falling cost of consumer good, especially in food.
  • Example: ten course meal= 60cents
struggling
Struggling
  • Men realized there was not much they could do for their families.
  • Depression was inescapable.
  • No one took economic security for granted anymore.
  • Families feared for their children and their future.
the great engineer
“The Great Engineer”
  • Hoover did not know what to do.
  • Economic crisis was unsolvable.
  • Business cycle
  • He tried voluntarism, exhortation, and limited government intervention.
slide6
POUR
  • Hoover created the President’s organization on unemployment relief. (POUR)
  • He wanted private contributions for relief as the unemployment rate increased.
  • A lot of the organizations and charities were not able to give much and ended up shutting their doors.
  • Hoover held himself firm.
  • “It is not the function of the government to relieve individuals of their responsibilities to their neighbors.”
uh oh
Uh oh!
  • Hoover was afraid that the POUR was going to lose their own “self reliance” because of government “relief”.
  • Authorized federal funds.
  • Rejected smaller grant.
  • Americans were becoming angry.
  • Hoover tried to lighten the mood.
  • BACK FIRED!
hawley smoot tariff 1930
Hawley-Smoot Tariff 1930
  • Purpose was to support American farmers and manufacturers by raising the tariffs on imported goods by 40%
          • Result
          • It lowered international trade.
          • Other nations did not have enough money to pay their debts to the United States.
          • 1931 Hoover announced a delay for the payments of World War I debts and compensation.
fight
Fight.
  • Communist leaders helped the belief that depression displayed a failure of capitalism.
  • Some American’s in this group wanted revolution.
  • “Fight don’t starve” were read in banners.
  • An incident on Ford River’s Rouge Plant in 1932 resulted in the murders of 4 men and wounding 50 others.
when will it stop
When will it stop?
  • Not only did social unrest spread, but so did racial violence.
  • Vigilant committees began to give out bounties to force African American workers from the Illinois central railroads payroll.
        • Results
        • -Killing of 10 men
        • -7 wounded
  • Economy got worse.
  • KKK reemerged.
    • Lynching's constantly occurred
      • Pennsylvania, Colorado, Minnesota, and Ohio
summer of 1932
Summer of 1932
  • Shook the nation like never before.
  • Many World War I veterans and their families converged on the nations capital as congress debated a bill which authorized immediate payment of “cash bonus” that they were suppose to receive in 1945.
  • The Bonus Army
  • “Hooverville”
  • The Senate voted it down.
  • Most bonus marchers left Washington but some stayed having nowhere else to go.
    • “Insurrectionists”
summer of 19321
Summer of 1932
  • Men and women were chased down by horsemen
  • Chilldren were tear gassed
  • Shacks set on fire
  • The newspaper the next day had photos of the U.S. troops attacking their own citizens.
  • “Thank God we still have a government that knows how to deal with a mob.”
february 1933
February 1933
  • Resolution calling for the new election of a U.S. President.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt- “unlimited power”
  • Hitler rose to power and his National Socialist Party in depression-ravaged Germany and this brought a great sense of crisis to the citizens of what would come next for their future.