Do now how is a scientific investigation done
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Do Now… How is a scientific investigation done?. Methods of Science Objectives: - Differentiate among control, independent variable, and dependent variable - Identify the scientific methods a biologist uses for research -Describe the difference between Theory and a Law. Ms. Scerra.

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Do now how is a scientific investigation done

Do Now…How is a scientific investigation done?

Ms scerra

Methods of ScienceObjectives:- Differentiate among control, independent variable, and dependent variable- Identify the scientific methods a biologist uses for research-Describe the difference between Theory and a Law

Ms. Scerra

The scientific method
The Scientific Method

  • Biologists work in different places in order to answer a question they may have.

  • Biologist all use similar methods to gather information and to answer questions, the Scientific Method

    • Even though scientists do not use scientific methods in the same way each time they conduct an experiment, they observe and infer throughout the entire process.

Quick review
Quick Review

  • Observation – direct way of gathering information in an orderly way.

  • Inference – the process of combining what you know with what you have learned to draw a logical conclusion.

Form a hypothesis
Form a Hypothesis

  • After observing, reviewing prior information and questioning, a biologist is able to format a hypothesis.

  • A Hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation.

    • A Hypothesis that is supported through experiments and data is then accepted in the scientific community.


  • The occurrence of accidental or unexpected but fortunate results.

    For example:

  • The discovery of Penicillin.

  • A petri dish was left out overnight and the next morning the scientist discovered a green fuzzy substance growing on it. Later they discovered it properties that it destroyed bacteria cells.

Think pair share

  • Can you think of an event that was serendipitous?

  • Has serendipity occurred in your life?

  • Can you think of something that came about or was discovered through serendipity?

Experimental design
Experimental Design

  • With that hypothesis, an experiment is created.

  • Experiment – investigation of a phenomenon in a controlled setting to test a hypothesis.

  • Each Experiment has:

    • Control Group – a group used for comparison.

    • Experimental Group – the group exposed to the factor being tested.

    • Independent Variable – the tested factor and may affect the outcome of the experiment.

    • Dependent Variable – results from or depends on changes to the independent variable.

    • Constant – a factor that remains fixed during an experiment.

Collect and g ather data
Collect and Gather Data

  • Data- information gained from observations.

  • Quantitative Data- measurements of time, temperature, length, or other factors.

  • Qualitative Data- descriptions of what our senses detect.

Displaying data organize your data into a chart make a graph out of the chart
Displaying Data-Organize your data into a chart-Make a graph out of the chart

Analyze your data to form a conclusion
Analyze Your Data to Form a Conclusion

  • What can we conclude from this graph?

Report your conclusions
Report Your Conclusions

  • After experimenting you must come to some type of conclusion either disproving or proving your hypothesis!

  • Conclusions are published so others can review the results and discuss the merit of the experiment.

Do now
Do Now!

  • What is the SI unit system of measurement?

  • Why is it used?

  • What unit would I use to describe length? Mass? Volume?


  • Explain the nature of science

  • Compare and contrast the English and metric systems

  • Practice conversions between metric units.

Nature of science
Nature of Science

  • *Uses Scientific Theory…

  • Theory

    • Explanation of natural phenomenon supported by many observations and experiments over time

    • Explains how or why something happens.

    • Ex: The Big Bang Theory (not the show!), Cell Theory

  • Law

    • A statement about an event that occurs in nature

    • Doesn’t give us the “how” or “why” explanation

    • Usually expressed as a mathematical equation

    • Ex: The Law of Gravity, Boyle’s Law, etc.

Expands scientific knowledge
Expands Scientific Knowledge

  • Science is under constant reevaluation of what is known.

  • Ex. Classification, Food Pyramid

  • Can lead to new knowledge

  • Reevaluation cycle continues!

Challenges accepted theories
Challenges Accepted Theories

  • Scientists debate each other’s ideas

  • Science accommodates new information as it is discovered

Questions results
Questions Results

  • Scientist can find data that is not consistent with current scientific understanding

  • These inconsistencies often lead to further investigations

Test claims
Test Claims

  • Conclusions are reached after

    • Controlled experiments

    • Unbiased investigations

    • Large amounts of data

Undergoes peer review
Undergoes Peer Review

  • Experiments are reviewed by scientist’s peers. (Peer review )

  • Evaluated by other scientists who are in the same field or who are conducting similar research.

Measurements used in science
Measurements Used in Science

  • Different methods used for measuring

  • International System of Units (SI)- what scientists all over the world use

    • Measured in groups of 10

Length si
Length - SI

  • SI uses the meter

  • Measures how long something is

  • Tools: Ruler, meter stick


  • SI uses m3

  • Most often we use liter

  • Measures how much space

    Something takes up

Mass and weight
Mass and Weight

  • Mass = how much matter something has

  • SI units are kilogram (kg)

  • Weight = force of gravity on an object

Time and temperature
Time and Temperature

  • Time: period between two events

    • SI unit is seconds (s)

  • Temperature: how much heat contained in an object (how hot or cold something is)

    • SI unit is Kelvin (K)

    • Scientists often use Celsius (C)


  • 4 kiloliters= ___________ hectoliters

  • 36.87 millimeters= ________ decameters

  • 0.098 meters = ___________ micrometers

  • 56.7 decimeters= _________ decameters