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Waves in the Ocean Words from these PPT slides are already on the course web site. Wave Parameters. Properties of Ocean Waves. An ocean wave is an undulation of the sea surface. Wave crest Wave trough Wave height Wave length Wave period Progressive waves move across the sea surface.

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properties of ocean waves
Properties of Ocean Waves
  • An ocean wave is an undulation of the sea surface.
    • Wave crest
    • Wave trough
    • Wave height
    • Wave length
    • Wave period
  • Progressive wavesmove across the sea surface.
  • Standing wavesoscillate about a fixed point.
what causes waves
What Causes Waves?
  • Wind
  • Submarine disturbance
  • Gravitational attraction of sun and moon
wind generation of waves
Wind Generation of Waves
  • Wind velocity
  • Wind duration
  • Fetch (distance over which wind blows)
  • Simply put, wave size increases as all these factors increase.
progressive waves
Progressive Waves
  • Wind-generated waves are progressive wavesbecause they travel across the sea surface.
progressive wave types
Progressive Wave Types
  • Sea - irregular waves in the area of generation
  • Swell - more regular waves beyond area of generation
  • Surf - waves that have reached the coast, grow in height, and break
wave motions
Wave Motions
  • Forward movement of the wave form.
  • Orbital motion of water particles beneath the wave.
  • It is wave energy,NOT water molecules, that moves across the sea surface.
deep water waves
Deep Water Waves

Waves do NOT interact with the seafloor.

Orbits of the water molecules are circular.

shallow water waves
Shallow Water Waves

Waves DO interact with the seafloor.

Orbits of the water molecules become elliptical.

life history of ocean waves15
Life History of Ocean Waves
  • Waves originate in the fetch area. This area is characterized by a “confused” sea state with extensive wave interference.This interference may be
    • Constructive
    • Destructive
rogue waves
Rogue Waves?
  • Constructive wave interference - wave buildup
rogue waves17
Rogue Waves

http://bit.ly/9XWFZu

http://bit.ly/cs1I9b

http://bit.ly/dmFsI7

destructive waves
Destructive Waves
  • Destructive wave interference - wave cancellation
progressive wave types19
Progressive Wave Types
  • Sea - irregular waves in the area of generation
  • Swell - more regular waves beyond area of generation
  • Surf - waves that have reached the coast, grow in height, and break
shallow waves affected by bottom
Shallow Waves Affected by Bottom
  • In shallow water, the sea bottom transforms the wave’s properties. This leads to wave refractionand waves collapse forming surf(breakers).
wave refraction
Wave Refraction
  • Bending of the wave crest as waves enter shallow water. It is due to
    • Drag along the bottom.
    • Differential speed along the crest.
shallow water wave transformations
Shallow-water Wave Transformations
  • Interaction with the sea bottom.
  • Bottom friction alters both the
    • Wave form
      • Wavelength shortens (decreases)
      • Height increases
    • Celerity (speed of wave form)
      • decreases
surf s up spilling plunging or surging
Surf’s Up! SpillingPlunging, orSurging
  • depending on the slope of the bottom