Overview. Understand the historical background and underlying causes of the Korean War Know the significant events which shaped the outcome of the Korean War. Potsdam Conference (July 16 to Aug 2, 1945).
PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Overview' - emerald-roach
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
At Potsdam that the allies decided, without consulting the Koreans, to divide the peninsula at the 38th Parallel. American Lt. General John R. Hodge following surrender of Japan was appointed military governor of South Korea Hodge established control by restoring power to key Japanese colonial administrators and their Korean police collaborators.
In December 1945, Korea was administered by a US–USSR Joint Commission. It was decided the country would become independent after a five-year trusteeship action.
This provoked civil unrest and even guerilla warfare, resulting in further crackdowns. Civil disorder spread throughout the country in what became known as the Autumn uprising.
Anti-Communist nationalist leader Syngman Rhee, opposed the Soviet–American trusteeship of Korea arguing it was just another foreign occupation
On November 14, 1947 the United Nations passed UN Resolution 112, calling for a general election under the supervision of the UN Commission. The Soviet Union refused to comply with the UN resolution and denied the UN Commission access to the northern part of Korea. U.S. backed South Korea decided to forego the five year trusteeship agreed and planned for elections in May 1948.
The South Korea elections resulted in a constitution and president, Syngman Rhee.
The Republic of Korea(South Korea) was officially established on August 15. Rhee purged the Communists in the south , many of whom headed north to prepare for war.
North Korea held parliamentary elections on August 25, 1948. On September 9, the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) was proclaimed, led by former anti-Japanese guerilla fighter Kim Il-Sung.
In early 1949, the U.S. began to disengage from Korea in every way.
Undersecretary of State Acheson, stated publically that South Korea was not a vital part of the U.S. defense perimeter in Asia. The U.S. military withdrawal was completed by June 1949, with only 500 military advisors remaining behind.
Both Kim Il-Sung and Syngman Rhee wanted to unify the Korean peninsula under their rule and ideology.
The U.S. Congress became nervous that if too much military aid was given to South Korea, Rhee would use it to invade the North, hence the U.S. only provided South Korea light arms and armor only, withholding heavy tanks and aircraft.
Hampered by lack of communications equipment and shortages of heavy weapons, U.S./ROK forces were pushed back
August 4, 1950: The Battle of Pusan Perimeter began. From Aug 4 to Sept15, the US Army withstood numerous attacks. The USAF interrupted enemy movements by destroying 32 bridges and bombing convoys, halting most daytime road and rail traffic and forcing the North Korean to move supplies only at night.
Inchon: September 15, 1950: To relieve pressure on Pusan, General MacArthur launched an ingenious amphibious assault on the West Coast of South Korea, at Inchon, a hundred miles away from Pusan.
From Inchon, American units moved both Northward, through the 38th Parallel, and southwest to effect of relief of the forces at Pusan.
October 15, 1950: Truman and MacArthur met at Wake Island for a meeting, MacArthur insisted there was little risk of Chinese intervention in Korea. However, on that same day, Chinese forces secretly crossed the Yalu River into North Korea.
December 31, 1950: Chinese/North Korean forces had taken Seoul. General MacArthur considers using nuclear weapons against the Chinese
March, 1951: Fighting stabilizes along the 38th Parallel. US retake Seoul
March 24, 1951: MacArthur unilaterally issues an ultimatum to China. MacArthur threatened to destroy China unless it surrendered.
April 11, 1951: President Truman removes MacArthur from his post, explaining that the general had been “…unable to give his wholehearted support to the policies of the United States government and the United Nations.”