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Scientific Method

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  1. Scientific Method

  2. Definition of Scientific Method: ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ The orderly and universally accepted steps that a scientist uses to answer and solve problems. 6 There are ____ steps in the Scientific Method. The goal for using it is to make a scientific claim ________________, _______________, and _____________. reliable reproducible valid

  3. The 6 steps of the scientific method are: 1.______________________________ 2.__________________________________ 3.______________________________________ 4.__________________________________ 5._________________________________________ 6.____________________________________ Ask a question (or state the problem) Form a hypothesis Test the hypothesis by performing an experiment Analyze the results State a conclusion – accept or reject the hypothesis Communicate the results or take action

  4. 1. Ask a question Good questions come from good _______________________, which are only useful if they are accurately _____________ and ______________________. observations made recorded Tools to assist in observation: _____________, ______________, ____________, ________________, ____________, _______________, ___________________, __________ __________, ______________, ________________, ________________, ______________, etc. Sight hearing tasting smelling touching telescopes microscopes graduated cylinders clocks, rulers stethescopes x-rays

  5. Form a hypothesis – an ____________ __________ or a _________________ that can be tested. Can you have different hypotheses for the same problem? ________ Use ____________________ statements. Example: If a plant does not get sunlight, then it won’t grow. educated guess prediction YES! “if – then”

  6. 3. Test the hypothesis by performing a controlled experiment. a. Only one variable per experiment! A variable is the factor that is _________________ between the test groups. b. The _______________ statement defines the variable. c. You must have at least ____ groups: the ___________________ group(s) and the ________________ group. d. The control is the group tested under __________________ conditions. e. Collect the _____________. f. ________________________: the larger the number of tested ______________ or the number of times an experiment is ________________, the more reliable. different “if – then” 2 experimental control normal data Law of large numbers subjects repeated

  7. 4. Analyze the results of the experiment. Organize the _____________ using _____________ or ______________. data tables graphs

  8. 5. Draw a conclusion … If the experiment supports the _________________, you ___________ the hypothesis. If not, you ________________ the hypothesis. Options if your hypothesis was wrong: a. Repeat the ___________________. b. Find another _________________ for what you have observed. hypothesis accept reject experiment explanation

  9. 6. Communicate the results or do something with them. Ways to communicate the results: 1. Publish them in a _______________ _________________. 2. Tell other _____________________. 3. Take _______________. scientific journal scientists action

  10. Definitions: Theory: ______________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Example: our solar system – do the planets go around the Earth or the Sun? Scientific Law: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Example: the law of gravity – what goes up must come down a description of nature, subject to change when the evidence changes, or a unifying explanation for a broad range of hypotheses and observations. a rule that describes a pattern in nature under specific conditions

  11. Example of the Scientific Method 1. State the problem: __________________________________________________. 2. Form a hypothesis: __________________________________________________________. 3. Test the hypothesis: __________________________________________________________________ 4. Analyze the results: ______________________________________________________________________ 5. State a conclusion: _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Do something with the results! ______________________________________________________________________ Bob has a sore throat Bob has strep throat. The doctor takes a swab of Bob’s throat and sends it to the lab. Strep bacteria are found in the culture. The doctor accepts his hypothesis that Bob has strep throat. The doctor gives Bob some antibiotic medicine.

  12. Scientific Method

  13. Definition of Scientific Method: ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ There are ____ steps in the Scientific Method. The goal for using it is to make a scientific claim ________________, _______________, and _____________.

  14. The 6 steps of the scientific method are: 1.______________________________ 2.__________________________________ 3.______________________________________ 4.__________________________________ 5._________________________________________ 6.____________________________________

  15. 1. Ask a question Good questions come from good _______________________, which are only useful if they are accurately _____________ and ______________________. Tools to assist in observation: _____________, ______________, ____________, ________________, ____________, _______________, ___________________, __________ __________, ______________, ________________, ________________, ______________, etc.

  16. Form a hypothesis – an ____________ __________ or a _________________ that can be tested. Can you have different hypotheses for the same problem? ________ Use ____________________ statements. Example: If a plant does not get sunlight, then it won’t grow.

  17. 3. Test the hypothesis by performing a controlled experiment. a. Only one variable per experiment! A variable is the factor that is _________________ between the test groups. b. The _______________ statement defines the variable. c. You must have at least ____ groups: the ___________________ group(s) and the ___________________ group. d. The control is the group tested under __________________ conditions. e. Collect the _____________. f. ______________________: the larger the number of tested ______________ or the number of times an experiment is ________________, the more reliable.

  18. 4. Analyze the results of the experiment. Organize the _____________ using _____________ or ______________.

  19. 5. Draw a conclusion … If the experiment supports the _________________, you ___________ the hypothesis. If not, you ________________ the hypothesis. Options if your hypothesis was wrong: a. Repeat the ___________________. b. Find another _________________ for what you have observed.

  20. 6. Communicate the results or do something with them. Ways to communicate the results: 1. Publish them in a _______________ _________________. 2. Tell other _____________________. 3. Take _______________.

  21. Definitions: Theory: ______________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Example: our solar system – do the planets go around the Earth or the Sun? Scientific Law: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Example: the law of gravity – what goes up must come down

  22. Example of the Scientific Method 1. State the problem: __________________________________________________. 2. Form a hypothesis: __________________________________________________________. 3. Test the hypothesis: __________________________________________________________________ 4. Analyze the results: ______________________________________________________________________ 5. State a conclusion: _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Do something with the results! ______________________________________________________________________