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Improving the visibility of Indian Research: An Institutional, Open Access Publishing Model. T.B. Rajashekar (Raja) National Centre for Science Information Indian Institute of Science Bangalore – 560 012 (India) ([email protected])

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Improving the visibility of Indian Research: An Institutional, Open Access Publishing Model

T.B. Rajashekar (Raja)National Centre for Science InformationIndian Institute of ScienceBangalore – 560 012 (India) ([email protected])

Indo-US Workshop on Open Digital Libraries and Interoperability, June 23-25, 2003

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NCSI, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

  • A central e-information facility and department

  • Provide desktop access to global e-information sources

    • e-journals, databases, web resources, news

    • SciGate – The IISc Science Information portal

    • E-JIS – the e-journal gateway

  • Promote visibility of IISc research

    • [email protected] - The IISc ePrints archive – online repository of IISc research papers

    • Conduct publications-based impact studies

  • Education and training

    • 18-month post-graduate training course on ‘Information and Knowledge Management’

    • Short term training courses – content management, DLs

  • Undertake sponsored development projects

    • ‘K-Library’ – VIC, ICICI Knowledge Park

    • Beta testing of Greenstone DL (UNESCO)

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  • The Problem

  • OAP and global access to Indian research

  • Enabling technologies for OAP

  • OAP in India: Current status and potential

  • Proposed OAP system

  • Deployment strategy

  • Challenges and issues

  • Areas for collaboration

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The Problem

  • Declining visibility and impact of Indian research

  • Several causes

  • Information related issues

    • Poor local access to global research

    • Poor global access to Indian research

  • How do we improve the situation?

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Local access to global research

  • Consortia approach - license campus-wide access to international e-resources


  • J-Gate & JCCC – Indian initiative – access to global journal literature

  • Expectations: Improved R&D productivity, quality of teaching and learning

  • Issues: Archiving, personalization, usage monitoring and impact analysis

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Global access to Indian research

  • Key challenge: How do we reciprocate the information flow and improve visibility and impact of Indian research?

  • Possible solution: Institutional level, open access publishing

    • Institutions set up digital repositories of their research output and provide open access

    • Adopt inter-operability standards

“Acting locally, Thinking globally” – Christine Borgman

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Open Access Publishing (OAP)

  • Free online access to scholarly material

    • “Public Domain” and “Open Access” material

  • Global movement in support of open access

    • Agencies and initiatives

    • International and national level workshops

      • “International Symposium on Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science”, Paris, 10-11 March 2003 (ICSU, UNESCO, ICSTI)

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Enabling Technologies for OAP

  • Open source DL/repository software

    • GSDL,, DSpace, CDSWare (OAI compliant)

  • Open source software for online journals and conference publishing

    • OJS of PKP project (OAI compliant)

  • Metadata schemes, name spaces, vocabularies

  • OpenArchives – Interoperability framework (OAI-PMH Protocol for metadata harvesting)

  • XML – information structuring / exchange

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  • Data Provider

    • Maintain repository

    • Expose metadata according to a metadata standard (e.g. DC)

    • Register with OAI

  • Service provider

    • Register with OAI

    • Extract metadata from registered repositories (‘harvest’)

    • Provide services (e.g. central index)

Example: Institutional eprint archives that use software (DP). ARC service from ODU (SP).

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OAP and India: Current Status and Potential

  • Significant R&D base (2001)

    • 2,900 organizations with R&D support

    • Large number of R&D labs under govt. agencies in several S&T domains

    • 300 universities

  • Research publishing (2002)

    • 34,000 journal articles indexed in international databases

    • 17,000 indexed in WOS – 5,600 from 50 institutions (IISc, CSIR, IITs, TIFR)

Significant potential for improving “Research Capacity”

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OAP and India: Current Status and Potential

  • Open access examples:

    • 11 journals of the Indian Academy of Sciences

    • UDL project - IISc

    • Vidyanidhi – theses – University of Mysore

    • Data sets – NCL, Pune

    • 4 journals from INSA

    • Metadata: INDMED, INFLIBNET

  • OAI-compliant repository

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Proposed OAP System

Data providers

Academic & govt. R&D institutions

Science journals

Science academies and societies, academic & govt. R&D institutions

New online-only e-journals (e.g. graduate students)

Metadata, if full material cannot be made online

Service providers

One or more – domain specific, multi-domain

DP can act as SP

Commercial possibilities (value-added services)?

Develop a national network of distributed, inter-operable, open access digital repositories of S&T scholarly material

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Proposed OAP System

  • Institutional repository features

    • Uses a OAI compliant repository software

    • Configures the repository for agreed content specifications

    • Supports distributed, intranet, online submission by researchers

    • Support for moderation/ peer review

    • Support for browse and search

    • Exposes metadata for harvesting

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OAI compliant repository (Data Provider)

OAI compliant repository (Data Provider)

Metadata Harvesting

Service Provider

OAI compliant repository (Data Provider)

Service Provider



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Deployment Strategy

  • Phased approach

    • Feasibility: 2-3 institutions in 2 administrative domains – IISc/IIT (MHRD), CSIR labs

      • Institutional repositories, central search service

      • Firm-up implementation mechanism

    • Administrative/ financial mechanism – extend scope of existing consortia + other funding sources

    • Expand the model to bring in other national level resources (legacy, new)

    • Ensure interoperability with global service providers

Essential - Structured & planned approach. National level coordination for concept promotion, feasibility, training, development, support and implementation.

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Key Benefits

  • Improved visibility and impact – institutional, national

  • Improved management of institutional IP (e.g. establish priority)

  • Contribute to institutional KM (e.g. knowledge ‘reuse’)

  • Improved research collaboration – inter-departmental, inter-institutional, international

  • Enhanced status and reputation – attract talent and funding

  • Enhanced ‘research capacity’

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Challenges and Issues

  • Essential and desirable features of repository software, infrastructural requirements

  • Content related standards and specifications (document types, metadata, formats, vocabulary, citations)

  • Promotion of repository usage by researchers

  • Peer review and quality audit norms

  • OAI-PMH support for non-OAI compliant systems

  • Automatic metadata identification, indexing, categorization, summarization

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Challenges and Issues…

  • Development of national level harvesting services

  • Content management – workflows, processes

  • IP issues – ownership and use of repository content

  • Preservation for long term access

  • Usage monitoring and impact (ROI) studies

  • Integration/ co-existence with traditional publishing systems

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  • Indian perspective

  • Research, development, implementation and deployment of OAP systems will be of significant interest and benefit to both the countries

  • Contribute to development of global open digital library

  • Further the cause of DLs as a field of study