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Open Access Publishing. Calum Land BioMed Central Ltd CODIST-II 2 nd May 2011. Agenda. What is Open Access? Open Access Repositories Digital Bridge or Digital Divide? BioMed Central and Africa How can Open Access benefit Africa? Open Access advocacy

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Open Access Publishing

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    1. Open Access Publishing Calum Land BioMed Central Ltd CODIST-II 2nd May 2011

    2. Agenda • What is Open Access? • Open Access Repositories • Digital Bridge or Digital Divide? • BioMed Central and Africa • How can Open Access benefit Africa? • Open Access advocacy • An Open Access journal case study

    3. About BioMed Central Largest publisher of peer-reviewed open access journals Launched first open access journal in 2000 Became part of Springer in 2008 Now publishes 207 open access journals >90,000 peer-reviewed OA articles published All research articles published under Creative Commons license Costs covered by article processing charge (APC)

    4. What is Open Access?

    5. The old world of access to knowledge

    6. The new world of access to knowledge

    7. Open Access Publishing Traditional journals take ownership of the research provide access to subscribers only Open access journals have no subscription barriers take advantage of the economics of the internet to allow universal access research is openly licensed to allow reuse

    8. Characteristics of Open Access • The publisher charges directly for the service of publication/ dissemination • Research permanently available via the Internet • No barriers to access such as subscription costs • Licensed so as to allow redistribution and reuse (Creative Commons) • Archived in an internationally recognized repository (e.g. PubMed Central)

    9. Who Pays? Open access journals do have costs Publication fee is a very small fraction of the cost of doing research Most open access publishers, including BioMed Central, give waivers to developing countries In other cases, open access journals have central support, so no charges for authors or readers

    10. Business Model • Article-processing charge (APC) covers: • Editorial: handling of manuscripts • Technical: development, maintenance and operation of online journal system • Production: Formatting and mark up of articles, inclusion in indexing services • Marketing: Making sure readers and authors know about the journal • Customer service: Responding to authors/readers • Web technology is used to keep costs low • BioMed Central’s charges (~$1680) are at the lower end

    11. Routes Towards Open Access Gold Open AccessPublishing in an open access journal • Full and Optional Open Access journals Green Open AccessDepositing articles in an Open Access repository Subject repositories • PubMedCentral • ArXiV Institutional repositories • E.g. UNECA Instutional Repository

    12. Open Access Repositories

    13. Open Access repositories • Supports the Green Route • Allow archiving of articles published both in traditional journals and open access journals • Traditional publishers typically only allow author version to be archived • Many require a 6 or 12 month embargo period • Open access articles can be deposited and made immediately available

    14. Open Access Publishing,then and now… 2011 And many more… 2000

    15. African Journals Online

    16. The internet has the potential to radically expand access to knowledge

    17. Digital divide or digital bridge?

    18. African internet connectivity is improving dramatically

    19. Cellphones

    20. Growth of mobile phones in Africa International Telecommunications Union report (2009) “The increase in the number of mobile cellular subscriptions over the last five years has defied all predictions and Africa remains the region with the highest mobile growth rate” Source: African Mobile Factbook 2008

    21. Mobile phone networks are already aiding scientific data gathering

    22. “Many African postgraduates lack access to, and the skills for working on, computers.” Association of Commonwealth Universities 2010

    23. ICT Levels International Telecommunications Union report (2009) Although the number of Internet users has grown faster than in other regions: “Africa’s ICT penetration levels in 2009 are still far behind the rest of the world and very few African countries reach ICT levels comparable to global averages”

    24. “The University Access Programis an initiative designed to catalyze Internet usage in Sub Saharan Africa Universities through the provision of affordable laptops, wireless access and bandwidth.”

    25. “Computer Aid has provided over 180,000 PCs to where they are most needed in more than 100 countries across Africa and Latin America.”

    26. BMC/Nature 10K fun run in support of ComputerAid

    27. As connectivity improves, other access barriers become significant

    28. Open access journals do away with access barriers

    29. BioMed Central and Africa

    30. OA Waiver Fund

    31. All African countries receive automatic fee waiver, except: • Libya • Namibia • South Africa Algeria Botswana Equatorial Guinea Gabon

    32. Growth in manuscript submissions from Africa to BioMed Central

    33. Manuscript submissions from Africa as fraction of total

    34. Top 10 journals for publications from Africa in last 12 months

    35. How can Open Access benefit Africa?

    36. UN Millennium Development Goals • Reduce child mortality, improve maternal health • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases • Ensure environmental sustainability • Develop a global partnership for development

    37. Who needs access to the results of research? Public Professionals Researchers

    38. Research on global health issues has expanded greatly • Developing world health issues are finally attracting substantial research spending • Private philanthropic initiatives have played an important role

    39. Why do research if it is not accessible where it is most relevant?

    40. Wellcome Trust Medical Research Council US National Institute of Health Howard Hughes Medical Institute European Research Council EC Seventh Framework Program Many research funders are now requiring Open Access

    41. Many universities are now requiring open access • Harvard University (and other members of Compact for Open Access Publishing Equity) • More than 100 mandatory institution-wide open access policies world-wide • But still very few in Africa…

    42. Open Access Advocacy

    43. Institutional Membership • Supporter membershipInstitution pays a flat fee, authors pay a discounted Article Processing Charge • Prepay membershipInstitution covers cost of publication centrally, at a discounted rate • Shared Support membership Institution and researchers share the cost at a discounted rate

    44. BMC Foundation Membership • A new type of membership created for developing nations • Designed to support Open Access advocacy • Same benefits as other institutional memberships • No cost

    45. Benefits of Foundation Membership • A BMC Webpage • A Member welcome pack • Membership usage reports • Member logo/badge for use on institution website • PR of Membership

    46. Criteria for Foundation Membership • Institution should have a Open Access policy in place • Institution should have published at least 5 articles in BioMed Central journals in the last year

    47. Member web page screen shot

    48. Open Access journals

    49. Malaria Journal - an open access journal case study