Chapter 5 section 2. Puritan Colonies in New England. John Winthrop.
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John Winthrop, Puritan leader said, “Follow the counsel of Micah: to do justly, to love mercy, to walk humbly with our God. For this end, we must rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together, always having before our eyes our common work.” Dated 1630. Winthrop wanted to make his colony a “city upon a hill.”
In 1629, a group of Puritans formed a joint stock company which they called the Massachusetts Bay Company. King Charles I gave them a charter to settle on land north of Plymouth. Unlike other charters, this one did not require company stockholders to meet in England.
Roger Williams was the first Puritan leader to break away. Although he was a Puritan minister, he soon accused leaders of not following the teachings of the Bible. His views angered Puritan leaders and in 1635 the General Court ordered him back to England. Fearing arrest in England, he fled with a few of his followers and established the settlement of Providence. Under his leadership, he formed the colony of Rhode Island.
Like Williams, Anne Hutchinson also clashed with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. Hutchinson got in trouble when she questioned church teachings. Puritan leaders ordered her to stand trial in the Spring of 1638. The General Court banished her “as being a women not fit for our society”. She and her family fled to Rhode Island and later to New Netherland. In 1643, Hutchinson and 5 of her children were killed by Cayuse Indians for bringing the white man’s measles.
Indians helped settlers at first. When colonists began taking their land, conflicts broke out.
The bloody King Phillip’s War ended with the power of New England tribes destroyed. In 1675, King Phillip’s War spread from Massachusetts to Maine. Peace was agreed on in 1678. During this conflict 600 colonists and 3,000 Indians died. The English called it King Phillip’s War because they named it after the Indian chief Metacomet, which the English called King Phillip.