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Chapter 10 The Senses. 10.1-10.5. 10.1. Introduction. Introduction. Sensory receptors detect environmental changes trigger nerve impulses Travel along sensory pathways to CNS Processed and interpreted. 2 Categories of Sensory Receptors. Receptors for somatic senses

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slide2
10.1

Introduction

introduction
Introduction
  • Sensory receptors detect environmental changes
    • trigger nerve impulses
    • Travel along sensory pathways to CNS
    • Processed and interpreted
2 categories of sensory receptors
2 Categories of Sensory Receptors
  • Receptors for somatic senses
    • Touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
    • Widely distributed throughout skin and deeper tissues
    • Structurally simple
  • Receptors for special senses
    • Smell, taste, hearing, equilibrium, and vision
    • Complex
slide5
10.2

Receptors, Sensations, and Perceptions

receptors sensation and perception
Receptors, Sensation, and Perception
  • Each receptor is sensitive to one distinct type of stimulus
  • Sensation – raw form in which receptors send info to the brain
  • Perception – the way our brains interpret this info
5 types of receptors
5 Types of Receptors
  • Chemoreceptors– stimulated by changes in chemical concentration of substances
  • Pain receptors – “ “ by tissue damage
  • Thermoreceptors – “ “ by changes in temperature
  • Mechanoreceptors – “ “by changes in pressure or movement
  • Photoreceptors – “ “ by light energy
sensation and perception
Sensation and Perception
  • Sensation – occurs when the brain becomes aware of sensory impulses
    • All nerve impulses are the same
  • Perception – occurs when the brain interprets those sensory impulses
    • Depends on which region of the brain receives the impulse
  • Projection – brain projects the sensation back to its apparent source
    • Allows a person to pinpoint the region of stimulation
sensory adaptation
Sensory Adaptation
  • Your brain prioritizes! (otherwise overwhelmed)
  • Sensory adaptation – the ability to ignore unimportant stimuli
    • Peripheral adaptation – receptors become unresponsive
    • Central adaptation – inhibits pathways to sensory regions of the cerebral cortex
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10.3

General Senses

touch and pressure senses
Touch and Pressure Senses
  • 3 receptors that sense mechanical forces that deform or displace tissues
    • Free nerve endings
      • Common in epithelial tissues
      • Responsible for itching
    • Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles
      • Abundant in hairless portions of skin
      • Responds to motion of objects that barely touch the skin
    • Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles
      • Common in deeper dermal and subcutaneous tissue
      • Respond to heavy pressure
temperature senses
Temperature Senses
  • Warm receptors
    • Free nerve endings that respond to warmer temps
    • 77 F-113 F
  • Cold receptors
    • Free nerve endings that respond to colder temps
  • Both adapt rapidly
sense of pain
Sense of Pain
  • Free nerve endings widely distributed throughout skin and internal tissues (NOT in the brain)
  • Protect the body since tissue damage stimulates them
  • Adapt poorly
visceral pain
Visceral Pain
  • Only receptors in viscera to produce sensations
  • Referred pain – visceral pain may feel as if it is coming from some part of the body other than the part being stimulated
    • Arises from common nerve pathways
    • Cerebral cortex incorrectly interprets the source of pain
pain nerve fibers
Pain Nerve Fibers
  • Acute pain fibers
    • Thin and myelinated (conduct impulses rapidly)
    • Associated with sharp pain
  • Chronic pain fibers
    • Thin and unmyelinated (conduct impulses more slowly)
    • Associated with dull aching sensations
  • Both fibers are usually stimulated
regulation of pain impulses
Regulation of Pain Impulses
  • Awareness of pain in thalamus
  • Cerebral cortex determines intensity, source, and mediates emotional and motor responses
  • Enkephalins, seratonin and endorphins are released to block pain signals
slide17
10.4

Special Senses

special senses
Special Senses
  • Senses whose sensory receptors are within large, complex sensory organs in the head
special senses1
Special Senses

Senses

Respective Organs

  • Smell
  • Taste
  • Hearing
  • Equilibrium
  • Sight
  • Olfactory Organs
  • Taste buds
  • Ears
  • Ears
  • Eyes