Chapter 13 Ear
OBJECTIVES • Identify the anatomy of the ear • Define and spell the word parts • Build and analyze medical terms using word parts • Define, pronounce, and spell the disease and disorder, diagnostic, surgical, and complementary terms for the ear • Interpret the meanings of abbreviations • Identify and use plural endings • Read medical documents and interpret medical terminology contained in them.
Function of the Ear The two functions of the ear are to hear and to provide the sense of balance. The ear is made up of three parts: the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. We hear because sound waves vibrate through the ear where they are transformed into nerve impulses that are then carried to the brain.
Ear • external ear • auricle (pinna): located on both sides of the head • external auditory meatus: short tube that ends at the tympanic membrane
Ear(cont’d) • middle ear • tympanic membrane (eardrum): semitransparent membrane that separates the external auditory meatus and the middle ear cavity • eustachian tube: connects the middle ear and the pharynx • ossicles: bones of the middle ear that carry sound vibrations
Ear(cont’d) • labyrinth (inner ear) • cochlea: snail-shaped and contains the organ of hearing; connects to the oval window in the middle ear • semicircular canals and vestibule: contain receptors and endolymph that help the body maintain its sense of balance • mastoid bone and cells: located in the skull bone behind the external auditory meatus
Combining Forms for the Ear • acou/o, audi/o • aur/I, aur/o, ot/o • labyrinth/o • mastoid/o • myring/o • staped/o • tympan/o
labyrinthitis mastoiditis myringitis otalgia otomycosis otopyorrhea otosclerosis tympanitis Disease and Disorder Terms Built from Word Parts
Disease and Disorder Terms Not Built From Word Parts • acoustic neuroma • Meniere’s disease • otitis externa • otitis media (OM) • tinnitus • vertigo
Surgical Terms Built from Word Parts • mastoidectomy • myringoplasty • myringotomy • tympanoplasty
Diagnostic Terms Built from Word Parts • acoumeter • audiogram • audiometry • otoscope • otoscopy • tympanometer • tympanometry
Complementary Terms Built from Word Parts • audiologist • aural • otologist • otology • otorhinolaryngologist (ENT)
Abbreviations • AD • AOM • AS • AU • ENT • OM
Plural Endings: English Language • Plurals are formed in the English by adding -s, -es, or -ies at the end of a word. Examples: SingularPlural dog dogs fox foxes canary canaries
Plural Endings:Medical Language Plurals are formed in medical language by using the English plural endings, especially for terms originating from modern language; however, terms built from Greek and Latin word parts are formed by using Greek and Latin plural endings.
Plural Endings:Medical Language (cont’d) • Latin suffixes Examples: SingularPlural fimbria fimbriae thorax thoraces appendix appendices diverticulum diverticula bronchus bronchi testis testes
Plural Endings:Medical Language (cont’d) • Greek suffixes Examples: SingularPlural adenoma adenomata spermatozoon spermatozoa larynx larynges metastasis metastases
Convert the following terms to plural: • thrombus • staphylococcus • alveolus • testis • ovum • pharynx • carcinoma • thorax
Convert the following terms to singular: • thrombi • testes • ova • pharynges • emboli • sarcomata • carcinomata • spermatozoa