Bell QuizUse pgs. 288-293 • Who are the Franks? • Who was the first king of the Merovingians? • After the death of Charles Martel in 741 A.D. who took over as the “mayors of the palace”? • In what year was Pepin III anointed king of the Franks? • What actions helped Charlemagne to unify the Frankish kingdom?
Answers • A Germanic tribe • Clovis • His sons, Pepin III and Carloman • 751 A.D. • The alliance between the Franks and the church, and the spread of Christian beliefs
The Rise of the Middle AgesA.D. 432 – A.D. 1328 The Rise of the Franks
Frankish Rulers • Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe experienced a period of widespread disorder and change lasting hundreds of years. • Between the 400s and 1500s Europeans began to restore order and transition into a period of European development known as the Middle Ages. • During this transition period many Germanic tribes plundered Europe and established small kingdoms. • The Franks were one Germanic tribe that did much to shape Western culture in post-Roman Europe.
Clovis and the Merovingians • In 481 A.D. a man named Clovis became the king of one of the Frankish tribes. • Clovis and his followers were know as the Merovingians. • Clovis was a skillful military leader who conquered and absorbed many other Frankish tribes; and soon controlled all of northern Gaul. • After Converting to Christianity Clovis gained the support of the church and with it the control of southwestern Gaul.
Clovis and the Merovingians • The Area ruled by Clovis is today occupied by France, which was named after the Franks. • When Clovis Died in 511 A.D., his sons divided the kingdom. • The division of Clovis’s kingdome lead to frequent conflicts amongst his sons and later his grandsons. These conflicts left the Merovingina kings weak, and opened the door for a new ruler. The division of the Frankish kingdom among the sons of Clovis at his death in 511.
The Carolingians • With the Merovingina kings fighting amongst them selves, a man named Pepin II and his successors were able to assume power and unite the Frankish kingdoms. • Pepin II never held the title of King; instead his title was the mayor of the palace. A title he held from 687 to 714 A.D. • After Pepin II died, his son, Charles Martel inherited the title of mayor of the palace.
The Carolingians • Charles Martel, also know as Charles the Hammer died in 741 A.D. • His sons Pepin III and Carloman became the joint mayors of the palace. • In 751 Pepin III anointed himself king of the Franks after overthrowing Childeric III, the last Merovingian king. • Pepin III’s coronation established a new line of Frankish kings know as the Carolingians.
The Carolingians • The Carolingians new empire was strengthened when the Pope gave his blessing to Pepin III. • In 754 A.D., under the request of the pope, Pepin III led a Frankish army into Italy and defeated the Lombards, a Germanic tribe that threatened Rome. • With this victory the Franks won control of the territory around Rome and gave it to the pope as a gift. • This gift known as the Donation of Pepin created an alliance between the Franks and the church that paved the way for the rise of Pepin III’s son Charlemagne, the greatest and most recognizable of all Frankish kings.
Charlemagne’s Empire. • Charlemagne inherited the Frankish throne in 768 and ruled until 814. • Charlemagne worked to build a new Rome centered in what is now France and Germany. • He helped to spread church teachings and Christian beliefs. • His rule did much to bring civilization, order, and learning to Europe during the 800s
Charlemagne’s Empire • Charlemagne spent most of his life at war; he defeated the Lombards, the Saxons, the Avars, drove the Moors out of France, and united much of western Europe for the first time since the fall of Rome. • For this reason Pope Leo III declared Charlemagne the “Emperor of the Romans” on Christmas Day 800 A.D. • The coronation of Charlemagne further demonstrated the close ties between the Franks and the Christian church.
The Decline of the Frankish Empire • After the death of Charlemagne the thrown was left to his only son Louis the Pious. • After Louis died in 840 is sons Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German divided the empire among themselves under the Treaty of Verdun. • Similar to the division of Clovis's kingdom, the Treaty of Verdun lead to frequent conflicts amongst Charlemagne’s sons and later his grandsons. As a result the empire's strength decline and eventually collapsed.