BELL QUIZ: USE PAGES 243-247 • Who succeeded Muhammad in 632 A.D.? • What does the title caliph mean? • According to the Shi’ah who should be the caliphs? • What was Umar’s greatest contribution to Islam? • Using the map on page 244 what years saw the greatest expansion of the Muslim Empire?
BELL QUIZ ANSWERS • Abu Bakr • Successor to the Prophet. • Only descendents of Ali. • Expanded the Muslim Empire into the Persian Empire. • 633-661 A.D.
Chapter 11 Section 2 Terms Caliph Imams Sultan Abu Bakr Umar Sunni Shi’ah Sufi Tariq Moors
Groups: Pages 243-247 Answer the following questions with as much detail as possible: • What 5 caliphs succeeded Muhammad AND what were their accomplishments? • How did the Islamic community become divided after Muhammad’s death? • What are the similarities and differences between the Sunni and the Shi’ah? • How did the Muslims expand their empire so quickly?
ABU BAKR: 1STRIGHTLY GUIDED CALIPH 632-634 A.D. • Muhammad dies in 632 A.D. • Abu Bakr is chosen by Muhammad as the successor. • Abu was the first convert to Islam outside of Muhammad’s immediately family. • The Shi’a Muslims believe that Muhammad wanted Ali to be the successor but Abu organized a coup d’etat. • Abu’s first item of business was to put down the revolts with in the Empire (Civil War).
ABU BAKR • Abu is given the title of caliph meaning “successor to the prophet.” • He is considered to be the 1stRightly Guided Caliph=the successor is a family member or personal friend of Muhammad. • Abu falls ill and dies just 2 years into his reign.
UMAR: 2ND RIGHTLY GUIDED CALIPH • Umar was one of Abu Bakr’s chief advisors and was influential to Abu putting down the rebellion by the desert tribes. • Abu names Umar as his successor in 634 A.D. • Umar expanded the Muslim Empire by conquering the Persian Empire.
UMAR 634-644 • Muslims did not necessarily demand their conquered people to convert to Islam. • Christians and Jews (the People of the Book) could either convert to Islam OR pay extra taxes. • Those who refused both options were killed. • Early on the Muslims were extremely tolerant of the Jews and Christians.
UTHMAN: 3RD RIGHTLY GUIDED CALIPH 644-656 A.D. • Uthman was related to Muhammad by marriage. Muhammad married 2 of Uthman’s daughters. • Uthman was elected as the 3rd caliph by a 6 member Muslim committee. • Uthman made many Arabs angry because he appointed his relatives to important government positions AND he accepted gifts and bribes from neighboring governors (riches and corruption).
UTHMAN • Ali organized a rebellion against Uthman because “he favored his own clan.” • 500 rebels storm Uthman’s home in Medina. • Muhammad, son of Abu Bakr, was the first to break into the home and attack Uthman. • Uthman is killed in 656 A.D.
ALI: 4TH RIGHTLY GUIDED CALIPH 656-661 A.D. • Ali was elected to succeed Uthman as the 4th caliph. • Uthman’s relative Mu’awiyah protested because Ali was the organizer of Uthman’s murder. • Ali moves the capital to Baghdad, Iraq. • Ali is assassinated in 661 and Mu’awiyah became the caliph.
SUNNI VS. SHI’A *Sunni accept Abu Bakr as the caliphate. *Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Muslims (90%). *Sunni means “People of the example.” These people study the life of Muhammad and act accordingly. *Sunni Islam claims to be the continuation of Islam as it was defined through the revelations given to Muhammad and his life.
SHI’A • Shi’a means “the followers of Ali.” • Shias adhere to the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family or his descendants known as Shi'a Imams, whom they consider to be infallible. Shia's assert the right of Ali. • Caliphs are selected through hereditary. • The rift between the Sunni and the Shi’a deepened when Mu’awiyah’s descendents killed Ali’s son Husayn.
SUFI • A third religious sect found within the Muslim religion. • Sufi’s are like Christian monks. • Sufi give up lives of riches and worldly possessions to live a life centered around worship of Allah and service.