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Air law. Air cadet ground school. Air law - topics. Aerodromes Airspace Canadian Airspace Rules of the Air Air Traffic Rules and Procedures. Aerodromes.

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air law

Air law

Air cadet ground school

air law topics
Air law - topics
  • Aerodromes
  • Airspace
  • Canadian Airspace
  • Rules of the Air
  • Air Traffic Rules and Procedures
  • Aerodrome: any area of land or water designed for the arrival , departure, movement and servicing of aircrafts and includes buildings, installations and equipment situated there.
  • Airport: any aerodrome in which a certificate is in force.
  • Aerodromes may be classified as for public use, private use, registered or military.
  • Aerodromes must have a certificate if:
  • It is located near a built up area or town
  • It is used by air carriers as a main base or for scheduled passenger carrying service
  • If the Minister feels it is in the public interest
  • Movement Area: the parts of an aerodrome or airport used for the surface movement of aircraft.
  • Manoeuvring Area: the parts of an aerodrome or airport used for take off and landing and the movement of aircraft.
  • Apron: the area intended for loading and unloading of passengers and cargo, the refuelling, servicing, maintenance and parking of the aircraft, and the movement of aircraft and vehicles for the above mentioned tasks.
  • Runway Numbering
  • Runway numbers are for convenience and identification.
  • Runway numbers are assigned due to its magnetic bearing in the Southern Domestic Airspace and true bearing in the Northern Domestic Airspace, rounded off to the nearest 10. We eliminate the last 0 for convenience.
  • Runway numbers are displayed at the approach end of each runway.
  • A runway running East and West would have 09 on the approach end of the runway orientated 090. The opposite end would be numbered 27 due to its bearing of 270.
  • Larger aerodromes may have more than one runway running in the same orientation. In this case the runway would be assigned a left or a right designator. Ex. 09R and 09L. Three runways would be 09R, 09C (for center) and 09L.
  • Runway Markings
  • Cones or pyramid shaped markers line unpaved runways.
  • Evergreen trees line snow covered runways (more for Northern Canada)
  • Paved runways have painted lines.
  • Runway markings
  • Centerline: white columns lining the middle of the runway.
  • Threshold: white lines running across the approach ends.
  • Displaced threshold: a threshold moved up because the beginning of the runway may be unsuitable for landing.
  • Taxiway markings
  • Centerline: yellow line to indicate the center of the taxiway.
  • Hold lines: Yellow solid and dotted lines running across the taxiway to indicate where an aircraft is to hold short of the runway.
  • Unserviceable Markings
  • A large ‘X’, either white for a runway or yellow for a taxiway, at least 20 feet in length, displayed at each en of the runway or taxiway indicates that the runway or taxiway is unserviceable (closed).
  • Wind Indicators
  • Windsock:
  • Elongates as wind speed increases
  • Straight windsock = 15kt wind or more
  • Sock on 30 downslope is a 6kt wind
  • Fluctuation wind sock is gusty conditions
  • Wind Indicators
  • Tetrahedron: known as a wind T. Designed like an arrow with the small end pointing into the wind. Will only display wind direction and not speed.
  • Aerodrome Lighting
  • For operations conducted at night we need lights at aerodromes.
  • Two parallel lines of white lights line the runways and need to be visible from at least 2 miles away.
  • Runway threshold lights will be green, while the end of the runway will be red.
  • Taxiway edges are lined with blue lights.
  • Airport beacons are white lights that rotate at a constant speed, flashing every 2 to 3 seconds and are visible for 10 miles on a clear night.
  • Obstruction lights are red lights used to mark tall building or towers that may be flight hazards. These lights may be steady or flashing, or have a white strobe light with them.
  • If an aerodrome is permanently closed, the operator will have all the markers and markings removed from the aerodrome.
  • Red flags or cones will be installed along the boundary of any unserviceable movement areas.
  • The Circuit
  • The Circuit
  • Upwind: the area opposite to the downwind leg.
  • Crosswind: lies across the center of the landing area to the downwind leg.
  • Downwind: the leg opposite to the direction of landing, which is parallel to and a half mile from the runway.
  • The Circuit
  • Base: leg perpendicular to landing, flown after the downwind leg.
  • Final: last leg, the approach to the runway.
  • NORDO: NO RaDiO. Aircraft is not capable of communicating via the radio.
  • RONLY: Receive ONLY. Aircraft can receive messages, but not transmit. Aircraft can rock wings to acknowledge an instruction.
  • Light signals are used to communicate with NORDO aircraft.
  • Light Signals to Aircraft on the Ground
  • Flashing Green: Cleared to Taxi
  • Steady Green: Cleared to Take Off
  • Flashing Red: Taxi clear of runway in use
  • Steady Red: Stop
  • Flashing White: Return to starting point on airport.
  • Blinking Runway Lights: Vehicles and Pedestrians are to vacate the runway immediately.
  • Light Signals to Aircraft in the Air
  • Steady Green: Cleared to Land
  • Steady Red or Red Flare: Do NOT Land. Continue in the circuit. Gentle turns only.
  • Flashing Green: Return for landing.
  • Flashing Red: Airport unsafe. Do NOT Land
  • Red Pyrotechnical: Do not land for the time being
  • Alternating Red and Green (US): Danger. Be on Alert.
air law1
Air law
  • Airworthiness
  • It is the pilots responsibility to ensure that Canadian registered aircraft are fit and safe prior to being flown.
  • Flight Permit: issued for experimental and specific purpose
  • Certificate of Airworthiness: signifies that the aircraft conforms to TC recognized design standards.
  • Annual Airworthiness Info Report: certifies that airworthiness info is correct.
air law2
Air law
  • Documentation
  • The following are required on board all aircraft:
  • Journey Log (if landing at another aerodrome)
  • Certificate of Airworthiness
  • Insurance
  • Personal Licences, Radio Licence and Medicals
  • Pilot Operating Handbook
  • Certificate of Registration

Remember: JAILOR

  • Canadian Domestic Airspace: All Airspace over the Canadian Land Mass and the Canadian Arctic and certain areas over the high seas.
  • Canadian Domestic Airspace is divided into two areas:
              • Northern Domestic Airspace
              • Southern Domestic Airspace
  • Northern Domestic Airspace: Airspace in close proximity to the North Pole. Due to the Earths magnetic field the compass is unreliable in this airspace. In general, this airspace is above the territories.
  • Southern Domestic Airspace: Airspace in the south, which is most areas of Canada. In general, this airspace is above the provinces.
  • Altimeter Setting Region: Aircraft altimeter will be set to the nearest aerodrome. Same geographical areas as the Southern Domestic Airspace.
  • Standard Pressure Region: Northern Domestic Airspace region and all airspace 18000 feet and above. Altimeter is set to 29.92”Hg.
  • Sparsely Settled Areas: Geographical areas of Canada with few settlements. Flight in such sparsely settled areas requires special precautions and procedures because of limited navigation facilities, severe weather conditions, limited weather information, limited fuel supplies and limited servicing facilities.
  • High level airspace: All Canadian Domestic Airspace 18000 feet and above.
  • High level airspace is divided into three regions:
            • Southern Control Area
            • Northern Control Area
            • Arctic Control Area
  • Southern Control Area: same airspace as the southern domestic airspace. All traffic at and above 18000 feet is controlled.
  • Northern Control Area: the area from the northern limits of the SCA to the 72˚N parallel. All traffic at and above FL230 (23000 feet) is controlled.
  • Arctic Control Area: the area north of the NCA to the north pole. All traffic at and above FL270 (27000 feet) is controlled.
  • Low Level Airspace: All Canadian Airspace below 18000 feet. Not all of this low level airspace is controlled.
canadian airspace
Canadian Airspace
  • Class A Airspace
  • Only IFR flights are permitted in this airspace.
  • ATC separation provided to all aircraft.
  • All Controlled airspace between FL180 and FL060.
  • All flights require an ATC clearance to enter.
  • Aircraft must be IFR equipped and the pilot must be IFR rated.
  • Mode C Transponder Required.
canadian airspace1
Canadian Airspace
  • Class B Airspace
  • IFR and cVFR flights only.
  • ATC separation provided to all traffic.
  • All Controlled Low Level Airspace between 12500 and 17999 feet ASL.
  • ATC Clearance required to enter.
  • Aircraft must be capable of two way radio contact.
  • Mode C Transponder required.
canadian airspace2
Canadian Airspace
  • Class C Airspace
  • Controlled Airspace where both IFR and VFR aircraft are permitted.
  • Controlled Low Level Airspace from the surface to 12500 feet.
  • ATC Clearance required.
  • ATC separation provided to all IFR and only on request if work load permits to VFR.
  • Aircraft must be capable of two way radio contact.
  • Mode C Transponder Required.
canadian airspace3
Canadian Airspace
  • Class D Airspace
  • Controlled airspace where both IFR and VFR traffic is permitted.
  • Two Way radio communication required to enter.
  • ATC separation provided to IFR traffic only.
  • Certain Class D Airspace may require a mode C transponder.
  • NORDO aircraft permitted during the day so long as prior permission is attained by the ATC unit.
canadian airspace4
Canadian Airspace
  • Class E Airspace
  • Controlled Airspace which doesn’t require Class A through D requirements.
  • IFR and VFR permitted but ATC separation to IFR only.
  • No special requirements for VFR traffic.
  • Certain Class E Airspace may require a mode C transponder.
canadian airspace5
Canadian Airspace
  • Class F Airspace
  • Controlled or uncontrolled airspace.
  • Advisory or Restricted or Danger Airspace.
  • Temporary or Permanent.
  • Avoid this airspace. Prior permission is required if there is a need to fly through this airspace.
canadian airspace6
Canadian Airspace
  • Class F Airspace
  • Restricted Area: Flight is either completely prohibited or restricted to specific conditions.
  • Danger Area: Airspace in which activities may constitute a potential hazard to aircraft.
  • Alert Area: Area in which a high volume of flying training or unusual type of aerial activity is carried out. Flight within these areas is not prohibited but pilots should exercise extreme caution.
  • Military Flying Area: High level airspace reserved for military flying and testing exercises. Civilian aircraft are not allowed in these areas.
canadian airspace7
Canadian Airspace
  • Class G Airspace
  • Airspace which has not already been designated A through F.
  • ATC has no authority or responsibility for any aircraft in this airspace.
  • Uncontrolled Airspace.
rules of the air
Rules of the Air
  • The Pilot in Command (PIC) is responsible for the operation and safety during flight time.
  • If there is any risk of collision, it is the responsibility of both PIC to take action to avoid collision.
  • When 2 aircraft are converging at approximately the same altitude, the PIC that of the aircraft that has the other aircraft on the right shall give way.
rules of the air1
Rules of the Air
  • Right of Way Rules:
  • Power driven heavier than air aircraft shall give way to airships, gliders and balloons.
  • Airships give way to gliders and balloons.
  • Gliders give way to balloons
  • Power driven aircraft give way to aircraft towing gliders, other objects, or a slung load.
rules of the air2
Rules of the Air

Right of Way:

Emergency over

Glider over

Balloon over

Power Driven Heavier Than Air Aircraft

Airship over

rules of the air3
Rules of the Air
  • When 2 aircraft operating at different altitudes are converging, the PIC of the higher aircraft shall give way to the lower aircraft.
  • When 2 aircraft are approaching approximately head on, each pilot shall alter their heading to the right.
  • When overtaking an aircraft, the aircraft being overtaken has the right of way and the aircraft overtaking shall pass to the right.
rules of the air5
Rules of the Air
  • When an aircraft is in flight or manoeuvring on the surface, the PIC shall give way to the aircraft that is landing or about to land.
  • The PIC of an aircraft approaching an aerodrome to land shall give way to an aircraft at a lower altitude that is approaching to land.
  • No person shall attempt a take off or landing in an aircraft until there is no apparent risk of collision with any aircraft, person, vessel, vehicle or structure in the take off or landing path.
aircraft lights
Aircraft Lights
  • Right Wing Green visible 110 for 2 miles
  • Left Wing Red visible 110 for 2 miles
  • Tail White visible 140 for 2 miles
  • Anti-collision White or Red visible 360
flight plan
Flight Plan
  • A VFR flight plan should be filed for flights more than 25 nm from the departure airport.
  • Flight plans must be filed for any cross border flights.
  • Flight plans should be filed with a Flight Service Station (FSS).
  • Flight plans must be closed within 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival (ETA).
flight itinerary
Flight Itinerary
  • A VFR flight itinerary may replace a flight plan and should be filed for all flights travelling more than 25 nm from the departure airport.
  • The purpose is to detail the pilots planned route and is to be filed with a responsible person.
  • Flight Itineraries must be closed within 24 hours after the ETA.
cruising altitudes
Cruising Altitudes
  • Flight altitudes must be followed regardless if a flight plan/itinerary has been filed.
  • Altitudes below 18 000 feet are stated in thousands.
  • Altitudes above 18 000 feet are referred to a Flight Levels.
  • Altitudes are measured from mean sea level (MSL).
cruising altitudes1
Cruising Altitudes
  • VFR Cruising Altitudes for flights below 18 000 feet.
  • Done in accordance with the Magnetic Track in the SDA and True Track in the NDA.
  • Starts at 3 000 feet above ground level (AGL) for VFR and at all altitudes for IFR.
  • Even (180-359) Westerners think Easterners are Odd (0-179).
  • VFR is +500 feet and IFR is +0. If flying West, VFR would fly 4500, while IFR would fly at 4000 feet.
air traffic control atc
Air Traffic Control (ATC)
  • Clearance: Authorization by ATC to proceed within controlled airspace under specific conditions.
  • Ask for clarification if unsure of any meaning of any part of the clearance.
  • Once a clearance is accepted by you, you are required to comply with it, unless there is a safety conflict.
  • Only read back a clearance if ATC requests it.
  • Instruction: a directive issued to control air and ground traffic.
  • You are required to comply with and acknowledge receipt of an ATC Instruction, which is directed to you, provided the safety of the aircraft is not jeopardized.
aircraft requirements
Aircraft Requirements
  • Checklists or placards which allow operations within limitations of aircraft manual/manufacturer documents.
  • Current aeronautical charts if VFR OTT, night VFR or IFR
  • Handheld fire extinguisher
  • Time piece readily available for each crew member.
  • Flashlight if at night
  • First aid kit
aircraft requirements day vfr
Aircraft Requirements – Day VFR
  • M-Manifold Pressure Indicator
  • O-Oil Temperature Gauge
  • O-Oil Pressure Gauge
  • F-Fuel Quantity Gauge
  • A-Altimeter
  • C-Compass
  • T-tachometer
  • A-Airspeed Indicator
  • R-Radio
daylight and night
Daylight and Night
  • Day: The period in time in any day where the center of the sun’s disc is less than 6˚ below the horizon and in any place where the sun rises and sets daily, maybe considered to be the period commencing one half hour before sunrise and one half hour after sunset. From the beginning of civil twilight to the end of civil twilight.
daylight and night1
Daylight and Night
  • Night: The period in time in any day where the center of the suns disc is more than 6˚ below the horizon, or the period commencing one half hour after sunset and ending one half hour before sunset. The period between the end of civil twilight and the beginning of civil twilight.
aircraft requirements night vfr
Aircraft Requirements – Night VFR
  • F-Fuses
  • A-Attitude Indicator
  • T-Turn Coordinator
  • D-Directional Gyroscopic Indicator (Heading)
  • I-Illumination for Instruments and a Flashlight
  • P-Pitot Heat
  • L-Landing light, anti-collision lights, position lights
  • O-Outside Air Temperature Gauge
  • V- Vertical Speed Indicator
oxygen equipment order
Oxygen Equipment Order
  • No person shall fly for more than 30 minutes at an altitude between 10 000 and 13 000 feet or above 13 000 feet unless there is enough oxygen available for the entire crew plus 10% of the passengers and in no case less than one passenger, and for 2 hours.
transportation of dangerous goods
Transportation of Dangerous Goods
  • Dangerous Goods shall NOT be carried unless in accordance with the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act.