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The Sulfur Cycle. Atmospheric SO 2. (CH 3 ) 2 S. COS. * Additional S Information. SO 4 2- in ocean. H 2 S. sulfofication. desulfofoication. (CH 3 ) 2 S. H 2 S. precipitation. Archaeon reduction. weathering. Thermoplasmales pH<3. H 2 S. H 2 S. SO 3 2- , SO 4 2-. FeS 2.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

The Sulfur Cycle

Atmospheric SO2

(CH3)2S

COS

*Additional S

Information

SO42- in

ocean

H2S

sulfofication

desulfofoication

(CH3)2S

H2S

precipitation

Archaeon reduction

weathering

Thermoplasmales

pH<3

H2S

H2S

SO32-, SO42-

FeS2

CaSO4

COS

volatilization

Biomass

burning

Fossil Fuel

Combustion

Volcanoes

River sediment

smelting/refining

electricity generation

Desulfuromanas

Inorganic S

S2-

mineralization

Photosynthetic

anaerobic bacteria

CO2

Soil solution SO42-

light

swamps,lakes

estuaries

slide2

H2O3

Atmospheric SO2

SO4 in

rainfall

Irrigation

water

O3

Fertilizers

dry deposition

pH>7; less SO42-

absorbed by plants

wet deposition

2S + 3O2 + 2H2O

2H2SO4

microbial

decomp

microbial

decomposition

mineralization, redox reactions

Soil solution

SO42-

immobilization

Organic S

Desulfovibrio, Desulfotomaculum

mineralization

Inorganic S

H2S

Leaching

mineralization

+O2

bacteria, fungi, algae, plants

Thiobacillus, Beggiatoa,

Chlorobium, Cromatium

Beggiatoa

Desulfuromanas

S2-

Authors: Xin Li, Dale Keahey, Jeremy Dennis,

Michael Blazier, and Chris Stiegler

more information on sulfur
More Information on Sulfur

General

Concentrations

Mobility in plant

Effect of pH on availability

Mobility in soil

Interaction with other nutrients

Deficiency symptoms

Fertilizer sources

Enzymes needing S

Role of nutrient in plant and microbial growth

Industrial uses

References

back to “The Sulfur Cycle”

general facts
General Facts
  • Sulfur is a pale yellow, non-metallic solid.
  • Name was derived from the Latin word for brimstone (“burning stone”), since it burns readily in air.
  • Elemental sulfur has been used since ancient times in religious ceremonies, to fumigate buildings, and for bleaching cloth. Also used agriculturally to lower the pH of soil.
  • During the Middle Ages, sulfur was one of the principal reagents used by alchemists in their search for the philosopher’s stone, believed to contain the secret of life. Modern chemistry has put sulfur to many other uses.
  • Large sedimentary deposits around the Gulf of Mexico and in Italy are extensively mined, as are volcanic deposits in Japan, Chile, and Indonesia.

back to “More Information on Sulfur”

slide5

Form taken up by plants:

SO42-, SO32- (low levels adsorbed through leaves)

Mobility in plant:

Yes

Mobility in soil:

Yes

Deficiency symptoms:

Leaves chlorotic (upper leaves), reduced plant growth, weak stems

Enzymes needing sulfur and biological compounds containing sulfur:

Coenzyme A, ferrodoxin, biotin, thiamine, glutathione, pyrophoshates, urease, and sulfotransferases

back to “More Information on Sulfur”

role of nutrient in plant and microbial growth
Role of nutrient in plant and microbial growth
  • Sulfur atoms play important roles in the biochemistry of plants, animals, and microorganisms.
  • Synthesis of the S-containing amino acids cystein, cystine, and methionine; synthesis of other metabolites, including CoA, biotin, thiamine, and glutathione; main function in proteins is the formation of disulfide bonds between polypeptide chains; component of other S-containing substances, including S-adenosylmethionine, formylmethionine, lipoic acid, and sulfolipid; about 2% of the organic reduced sulfur in the plant is present in the water soluble thiol (-SH) fraction; vital part of ferredoxin; responsible for the characteristic taste and smell of plants in the mustard and onion families; enhances oil formation in flax and soybeans; sulfate can be utilized without reduction and incorporated into essential organic structures; reduced sulfur can be re-oxidized in plants.

back to “More Information on Sulfur”

slide7

Concentration in plants:

0.1 and 0.5% of the dry wt.

of plants

Concentration in earth’s crust:

0.05%

Effect of pH on availability:

pH<6.5, AEC increases

with decreasing pH

Interaction with other nutrients:

associated with salts and exchangeable cations, can be replaced by phosphorus on exchange sites; also interconnects with the calcium and nitrogen cycles in important ways

back to “More Information on Sulfur”

fertilizer sources
Fertilizer Sources
  • Organic matter, ammonium bisulfite, ammonium nitrate-sulfate, ammonium phosphate-sulfate, ammonium polysulfide, ammonium sulfate, ammonium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, gypsum, magnesium sulfate, potassium sulfate, pyrites, potassium thiosulfate, potassium polysulfide, sulfuric acid (100%), sulfur, sulfur dioxide, single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, urea-sulfur, urea-sulfuric acid, and zinc sulfate

back to “More Information on Sulfur”

industrial uses fun facts
Industrial Uses/Fun Facts
  • Sulfur is used to manufacture wood pulp, rubber, insecticides, fertilizers, and many medicines.
  • Hair, wool, albumen, mustard, garlic, horseradish, and cabbage all contain appreciable amounts of sulfur, as do many proteins.

back to “More Information on Sulfur”

references
References
  • Hartmann, H.T., Kofranek, A.M., Rubatzky, V.E., Flocker, W.J. (1988). Plant Science. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
  • Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd ed. Institute of Plant Nutrition Univ. Hohenheim. Academic Press. San Diego, CA.
  • Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., Beaton, J.D., and Havlin, J.L. (1993). Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. 5th ed. Macmillan Pub. Co. New York, NY.
  • Vaughan, D., Malcolm, R.E. (1985). Soil Organic Matter and Biological Activity. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

back to “More Information on Sulfur”