Physics Nobel 2012: Some stories Physics Nobel for 2012 Serge Haroche, College de France David Wineland, NIST The Physics Nobel 1901-2011 Quantum correlations Some Reflections A talk presented on Friday March 22, 2013 10AM at ILR, The Oak Hammock.
Physics Nobel for 2012 Serge Haroche (1944- ) France College de France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems" David J. Wineland (1944- ) USA NIST and University of Colorado
http://www.nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/will/will-full.html Paris, 27 November, 1895 The Physics Nobel 1901-2011 The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: the capital, invested in safe securities by my executors, shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement; one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction; and one part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses. The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical work by the Caroline Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm, and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting. It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be a Scandinavian or not.
Physics Nobel for 2012 • First (1901) physics prize: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923) "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him" He did not show any special aptitude, but showed a love of nature and was fond of roaming in the open country and forests. He was especially apt at making mechanical contrivances, a characteristic which remained with him also in later life. In 1862 he entered a technical school at Utrecht, where he was however unfairly expelled, accused of having produced a caricature of one of the teachers, which was in fact done by someone else. A not uncommon statement among the Nobel physics biographies. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1901/rontgen.html
Physics Nobel for 2012 • First American-- Albert A. Michelson, 1907 • 106 Nobel Prizes in Physics have been awarded since 1901. It was not awarded on six occasions: in 1916, 1931, 1934, 1940, 1941, and 1942. • 47 Physics Prizes have been given to one Laureate only.30 Physics Prizes have been shared by two Laureates.29 Physics Prizes have been shared between three Laureates. • 194 awards, 193 laureates (Bardeen). • Youngest was William Lawrence Bragg at 25. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/shortfacts.html
Physics Nobel for 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/nomination/
Physics Nobel for 2012 • Quantum world • Particles form shadows, waves go around obstructions and form fringes and ripples (interference pattern) • Wave particle duality, at the micro level can’t tell the difference. A particle forms interference and a wave carries momentum. • Lasers and nonlinear optics, manipulation of photons by atoms and atoms by photons • Super matter as another example: a superfluid is a fabric. • Need to learn a lot more. Develop intuition about the quantum world.
Physics Nobel for 2012 • Wineland –ions probed by photons, ions in traps • Dehmelt • Haroche – photons moved by atoms, cavity quantum electrodynamics • Cohen Tannoudji • Particles as waves interfere, wavelengths have to match => special effects such as discrete energies .. • Photon a particle travels a foot in a nanosecond. Particle like behavior in bouncing off of another. • Quantum effects in particles in a trap. Photons held between two mirrors. • Quantum effects are diminished by environment and heat. Hence high vacuum and low temperatures. Already has lead to: http://www.cqed.org/IMG/pdf/raimond.pdf • Clocks of greater precision • Quantum computers, qubits..
Physics Nobel for 2012 • http://www.college-de-france.fr/site/en-serge-haroche/research_achievements.htm#|p=../en-serge-haroche/research_achievements.htm| • Careful study of atoms and photons together elaborating extraordinary details of the quantum world. Extraordinary technical achievements • We are moving beyond magnets on a refrigerator or batteries that made the frogs twitch. • ---------------------------------------- Some day you will tax it. -Michael Faraday to Prime Minster William Gladstone, in response to the question “what use was this electricity”.