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Chapter 11. Organizational Change. Learning Objectives. Discuss the relationship between technology and change. Explain the technology implementer’s role as a change agent. Discuss the characteristics of effective change leaders. Identify effective strategies for organizational change.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss the relationship between technology and change.
  • Explain the technology implementer’s role as a change agent.
  • Discuss the characteristics of effective change leaders.
  • Identify effective strategies for organizational change.
  • List and discuss important considerations in implementing technological changes.
learning objectives3
Learning Objectives

2

  • Use Lewin’s force field analysis to identify forces pushing for and resisting technology.
  • Identify major causes of resistance to change in an organization and explain how a manager or EUIS analyst can avoid them.
  • Diagnose pressures for and resistance to a planned technological change.
  • Discuss the importance of top management support and employee participation in ensuring the success of information technologies.
planning for organizational change
Planning for Organizational Change
  • Successful and unsuccessful change
  • Technology brings change
  • The technology implementer as change agent
planning for organizational change5
Planning for Organizational Change

Important considerations in technological change

  • Ability of employees to conceptualize change
  • Employees’ readiness for change
  • Employees’ capacity for change
  • Individual differences among users
  • Environmental uncertainty and complexity
planning for organizational change6
Planning for Organizational Change

Important considerations in technological change

  • Change itself
  • Organizational structure
  • Distribution of power
  • Experience of the change agent
  • Risks involved
  • Required resources
modeling the dynamics of change
Modeling The Dynamics of Change

Leavitt’s systems model of change

  • Technological variables
  • Structural variables
  • Process (Task) variables
  • People variables
modeling the dynamics of change8
Modeling The Dynamics of Change

Lewin’s force field analysis

Driving Forces

Restraining Forces

E

Q

U

I

L

I

B

R

I

U

M

People pressing for change

Structure pressing for change

Task variables pressing for change

Technology variables pressing for change

People variables resisting change

Structure variables resisting change

Task variables resisting change

Technology variables resisting change

lewin s three phases of change
Lewin’s Three Phases of Change

The learning curve for introducing

information technologies

Unfreeze Phase

Change Phase

Refreeze Phase

Productivity

Time

lewin s three phases of change10
Lewin’s Three Phases of Change

The learning curve for introducing

information technologies

Unfreeze Phase

Change Phase

Refreeze Phase

Productivity

Time

understanding resistance to change
Understanding Resistance to Change

Reasons for resistance to technological change

  • Social uncertainty
  • Limited perspectives
  • Lack of understanding
  • Threats to power and influence
  • Resistance to technical personnel
  • Perception that costs outweigh benefits
  • Fear of failure or inadequacy
  • Loss of control
  • Feelings of insecurity
  • Threat of economic loss
overcoming resistance to change
Overcoming Resistance to Change
  • Education and communication
  • Participation and involvement
  • Facilitation and support
  • Facilitation and support
  • Negotiation and agreement
  • Manipulation and co-optation
  • Explicit and implicit coercion
managing the change process
Managing the Change Process
  • Ensuring participation
  • Providing incentives
  • Gaining management support
  • Monitoring results
slide14
Summary

Key Terms:

  • Change agent
  • Driving forces
  • Force field analysis
  • People variables
  • Planned organizational change
  • Process (task) variables
  • Restraining forces
  • Structure variables
  • Technology variables
slide15
Next:

Business Process and

Job (Re)Design

Chapter 12

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