BIOCHEMISTRY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BIOCHEMISTRY

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  1. BIOCHEMISTRY

  2. 42. carbohydrate protein lipid energy activation energy enzymes substrate active site polarity cohesion 52. adhesion Not in 2011 hydrolysis 54. condensation reaction vocabulary Read 27-33

  3. I ATOMIC STRUCTURE • Properties of elements are determined by the number of protons in the nucleus. • The number of protonsin a nucleus is called the atomic number • What is the name of this element?

  4. Diagram Oxygen and Hydrogen atomic numbers 8 and 1 1 P

  5. Diagram Oxygen and Hydrogen atomic numbers 8 and 1 8P 8N 1 P


  6. Diagram Oxygen and Hydrogen atomic numbers 8 and 1 8P 8N 1 P 1 P Don’t draw this b/c it reappears 2 slides later

  7. Octet Rule = atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have 8 electrons Gain 4 electrons • C would like to • N would like to • O would like to Gain 3 electrons Gain 2 electrons

  8. Diagram the Polarity of the Water molecule Electrons tend to spend more time near the oxygen because the large positive nucleus attracts the negative electrons Oxygen hydrogen hydrogen

  9. II PROPERTIES OF WATER • 1. polarity • results in : • temperature stabilizing effect (high heat capacity) • surface tension • cohesive properties

  10. 2. excellent solvent Solute- material dissolved in a solvent Adhesion- sticks to other materials Cohesion- sticks to materials like itself 3. Expands when frozen opposite of all other known materials Properties of water cont’

  11. III FERMENTATION AND DISTILLATION • Diagram a still w/ corn, yeast, and water • hydrogen bonds in water raises the boiling point • Emphasis on boiling points • yeast is a fungus • drinking addiction

  12. Diagram this process

  13. Draw results of fermentation demo(in your notes)

  14. IV IMPORTANCE OF WATER • 1. Source of H and O for chemical reactions • 2. a medium for transporting foods, minerals and other substances in a living system • 3. medium in which soluble materials are absorbed from the environment • (“medium” means: method, material or way)

  15. 4. support (by water pressure) in plant cells and invertebrates (worms) • 5. high percentage of the body weight • *blood composition is almost identical to sea water* • EVIDENCE OF LIFE ORIGINATING IN THE SEA

  16. O 100.1 C 27.72 H 15.4 Ca 2.31 P 1.54 N 1.48 K .54 S .35 Na .23 Cl .23 Mg .077 Fe .006 I .006 Mn .0045 Trace Si, F, Cu, Zn V ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS composition of the human body Pounds of each element in a 150 pound person

  17. Where do these elements come from? water atmosphere soil,

  18. VI CARBON COMPOUNDS IN CELLS • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- the study of carbon compounds and their reactions. Carbon is unique because it can form long chains and rings • Diagram carbon atomic structure and write short hand for chemical bonds

  19. Carbon Atom A.N. 6 Four outer level or “valence electrons” 6 P 6 N C

  20. Carbon Atom A.N. 6 Four outer level or “valence electrons” 6 P 6 N C

  21. Carbon Atom A.N. 6 Short hand version Bar = one shared pair of electrons 6 P 6 N C C

  22. CARBOHYDRATES Cells need fuel to function: especially CHO and fats

  23. I. FUNCTION (in order of importance to humans) • ENERGY • STORED ENERGY (more so in plants) • IMMUNITY • MEMBRANE FUNCTION • STRUCTURE (common in plants and fungi)

  24. V. FOODS • ALL PLANTS -sugars are in fruits, vegetables, lactose in milk • starch in potatoes

  25. Food categories that provide CHO: Fruits Vegetables Grains Milk Meat alternates NOT meat or oil Plants create CHO via photosynthesis

  26. LIPIDS (categories) notes in binder • Triglycerides • Phospholipids • Sterols • More commonly to you • Oils, fats, waxes, steroids

  27. I FUNCTION (in order of importance to humans) • STORED ENERGY • STRUCTURAL MATERIAL 1. Protection of vital organs 2. Insulation 3. Membranes • CARRIES ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

  28. Examples of triglyceridesFats Oils

  29. IV. EXAMPLES • NEUTRAL FATS(triglycerides) - butter, lard, oil • WAXES - cutin on leaf surfaces, ears, honey comb • STEROLS- cholesterol, hormones, steroids, vitamin D precursor • LDL low density bad • HDL high density good

  30. V. FOODS • meats • seeds • nuts • milk

  31. Protein • Watch video on the next slide

  32. I. FUNCTIONS • ENZYMES "speeds up reactions“ (more later) • STRUCTURE (muscle) • TRANSPORT • HORMONES • IMMUNITY • ENERGY (last energy source used by humans)

  33. II COMPOSITION • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur • Monomer amino acid BUILDING BLOCKS OF PROTEINS • 20 amino acids in the world of life

  34. III STRUCTURE • amino group + acid group Draw this in your notes

  35. amino group + acid group • a peptide bond links amino acids • dipeptide- two amino acids bonded • polypeptide- 3 or more amino acids • Remember how the simple sugars “monosaccharides” were joined to form a “polysaccharide”

  36. H and OH are removed to form water Draw this in your notes

  37. IV EXAMPLES • amino acids alanine tyrosine arginine (notice the endings) • fibrous proteins- single chains keratin collagen • globular proteins- several chains linked together enzymes, hemoglobin, antibodies, insulin • lipoprotein lipid and protein bonded • glycoprotein sugar and protein bonded

  38. V FOOD • milk, eggs, seeds, legumes, fish, meat

  39. enzymes • - ALL REACTIONS REQUIRE AN ADDITION OF ENERGY TO GET STARTED, "ACTIVATION ENERGY" • -BIOLOGICAL COMPOUNDS THAT "SPEED UP" THE RATE OF A CHEMICAL REACTION BY LOWERING THE AMOUNT OF ACTIVATION ENERGY NEEDED

  40. 1. Enzymes as biological catalyst • Major properties • All are globular proteins • They increase the rate of a reaction without themselves being used up • Their presence does not alter the nature or properties of the end product(s) of the reaction • A very small amount of catalyst can work on a large amount of substrate

  41. Lactose = Principle CHO found in milk carbohydrate Lactose intolerance = insufficient production of enzyme lactase

  42. ENZYME ACTIVITYTHE LOCK AND KEY HYPOTHESIS OF ENZYME ACTIVITY

  43. Kiwi fruit and gelatin demo (draw in your notes)

  44. Link to comp lab pages • ‘Lock and key’ hypothesis • Enzyme has a particular shape into which the substrate(s) fit exactly • Key = substrate • Lock = enzyme

  45. Enzymes are… • SPECIFIC FOR A SUBSTRATE • UNCHANGED DURING THE REACTION • PROTEINS • REUSEABLE