Simulation-based training in the medical fieldBenjamin Lok, Ph.D.Computer and Information Sciences and EngineeringUniversity of Florida DWI Lecture, January 31, 2012
Overview of talk • Two parts: • Simulation in medicine • Existing approaches • New approaches • Virtual humans • Goals: • Identifying how you can benefit from simulation today • Identifying your part in shaping the future of education
Current Simulation Efforts • Humans • Lecture • Role-playing • Standardized patients – “gold standard” • Pros • Empathy • Emotion • Rapport
Current Computer Simulation Efforts • Computer-based learning case studies • Passive – multimedia presentation of information • https://research.bidmc.harvard.edu/vptutorials/cases/mental.htm • “Choose your own adventure” • http://www.virtualpatients.eu/referatory/ Image from Harvard Medical School
Current state of simulation • Simulation wings • UF-Jacksonville has dedicated 24,000 sq. ft. • UF-Jacksonville 55 simulators • Basic understanding of integration into curriculums • [Huang 2007] Virtual patients • Ad-hoc (26 of 108 schools building cases) • Still images and video (83% of virtual patients) • Expensive (each case $10,000-$50,000, 1-2 years to develop) • Known education potential • Compliments classrooms Human Patient Simulator – image from Samsun Lampotang
Current approaches have difficulty providing: • Sufficient opportunities for practice • Exposure to infrequent – yet critical – scenarios • Tailoring for each student • Standardization • Patient variability • Team-based learning • Cultural competency • Feedback
Serious Games • Interactive training exercises • Using computer game engines and the Internet • http://www.breakawaygames.com/serious-games/solutions/healthcare/pulse.html Image from Breakaway Ltd.
Virtual Environment Fidelity Ford Vehicle Simulator
Virtual Environment Fidelity Flatworlds, USC, ICT
Goal of Talk • Virtual environments have high fidelity Virtual Iraq, USC, ICT Flatworlds, USC, ICT Ford Vehicle Simulator
Goal of Talk • I propose the next area of VR and computer graphics research will focus on virtual humans • How virtual humans affect people • How people are using virtual humans • Research directions of virtual humans • Motivate you to explore virtual humans in your own research Image courtesy of Skip Rizzo, University of Southern California
Example Virtual Human Interaction • Video courtesy of Skip Rizzo, University of Southern California
Can interacting with a virtual human make you a better person? Dr. Gregory House Good with medical knowledge Not so good with interacting with people Dr. Derek Shepherd Good with medical knowledge Good with interacting with people Dr. Doug Ross Good with medical knowledge Good with interacting with people
This talk will focus on • Virtual humans as interaction partners • How can they affect us? • Teach us? • Change us?
Deployment - Continuum of Experiences Immersive Interaction Virtual Worlds Video Conference Chat Immersion Web Browser Instant Message Mobile Deployment Fidelity, Learning efficacy Images from www.virtualpatientsgroup.com
Commercial Virtual Humans Up – Pixar
Commercial Virtual Humans L. A. Noire – Rockstar Games
Affect: Bias • Would health profession students treat these virtual human patients differently? Images from the Virtual Patients project at verg.cise.ufl.edu
Affect: Phobia treatment • Fear of public speaking (Pertaub 2002, Virtually Better)
Affect: Social norms • What would you do if she sneezed?
Pixels mean different things • What do you see?
Training • Think of tasks that everyone does almost everyday… • Interact with another person • Yet training for this is very limited. • Humans are social creatures!
Training with a VH • Impacts • Education (teachers with students) • Military (leadership training) • Law Enforcement (police officers and suspects) Justine Cassell – Carnegie Mellon University, USC ICT
Benefits of Virtual Humans? • Providing experiences is logistically complex • Frequency • Standardization • Diversity • Feedback • Resources Military Version Sexual Assault Patient Prototype Image courtesy of Skip Rizzo, University of Southern California
Benefits of Virtual Humans? • Abnormal findings
New research areas • Visual realism • Haptics • Cognition • Personality • What would it take to make people care • VR notions of presence and immersion do not directly apply Image courtesy of Justine Cassell, Carnegie Mellon University
Future Implications • Revolutionize interpersonal training • Culture • Communication Skills • Help people with communication skills deficiencies • Fear of public speaking • Social phobias (e.g. paranoia) • Autism • Bias Images courtesy of Sabarish Babu – Clemson University
So Can Virtual Humans Make You a Better Person? • If you want them to, we know they can • Affect you • You can learn from interacting them • Change your behavior
Virtual People Factory • www.virtualpeoplefactory.com • Web-based interface to virtual humans • Deployed Early 2008 • 56 active developers • 2700 users • 105,000 utterances • Demo
Mobile Distribution of Simulation • Deploy simulations via mobile platforms • Android app, released December 2010, over 4600 downloads • In Android Market, search for “Virtual Patient” Image from www.virtualpatientsgroup.com
Museum of Science and Industry • Science museum in Tampa, FL • Integrate a VH interaction • Public health literacy • Research • About 4000 people per year enter our exhibit • About n=~400 per year are usable datapoints for studies
Repositories • MedEdPORTAL • Peer reviewed medical education resource • 400 institutions downloads in 10 months
Thank You! Build your own virtual patients: www.virtualpatientsgroup.com Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Support: National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health