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January 31, 2014. Complete the Map of Ancient Egypt using pages 62, 64, R36 (in the Atlas at the back of the book) SKIP # 8, 12, 16, 18, and 20. Nile Civilizations. 1. Geography. The Nile River It flows south to north Floods annually (yearly) Provides deposits that make the soil fertile

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january 31 2014
January 31, 2014
  • Complete the Map of Ancient Egypt using pages 62, 64, R36 (in the Atlas at the back of the book)
    • SKIP # 8, 12, 16, 18, and 20
1 geography
1. Geography
  • The Nile River
    • It flows south to north
    • Floods annually (yearly)
      • Provides deposits that make the soil fertile
      • Richest, most fertile soil is found in the Delta

B. The Delta

  • Definition- an area at the mouth of a river, often triangular in shape, made up of silt deposits
2 early egypt
2. Early Egypt
  • Two Kingdoms
    • People spoke different dialects and had different customs
    • Lower Egypt (Northern Kingdom)
      • Occupied the delta region
      • Symbol was the snake because they worshiped the cobra goddess
    • Upper Egypt (Southern Kingdom)
      • Occupied the area south of the Delta to the 1st Cataract
      • Symbol was the vulture because they worshiped a vulture goddess

B. Menes

  • Legend states he united the 2 kingdoms around 3100 B.C.
  • He adopted the symbols of both kingdoms
    • Wore a crown that combined both symbols
  • Founded the 1st dynasty in Egypt
3 3 kingdoms time periods
3. 3 Kingdoms (Time Periods)
  • Old Kingdom ( 2650- 2150 B.C.)
    • Started with the 3rd Dynasty
    • Began a stable period in Egypt
    • Built the pyramids
    • Head of government was the pharaoh
      • Had absolute power
      • Owned all the land
      • Acted as judges
      • Leader of army
      • Believed to be a god

v. Religion and government closely intertwined

  • Egypt’s government was a theocracy
    • A state ruled by religious figures

vi. Had a well established bureaucracy

  • A highly structured organization managed by officials
  • Had no power of their own, but acted on the wishes of the pharaoh
  • Most powerful official was the vizier
    • Responsible for advising the pharaoh, carrying out his orders and trying court cases
  • Other officials served as governors, supervisors, inspectors of irrigation and crops, census takers and tax collectors

B. Middle Kingdom

  • 2055 B.C a new dynasty arose and started the period of the Middle Kingdom
  • Re-established stability in Egypt
  • Capital was Thebes
  • Enjoyed economic prosperity
  • Secured trade routes
  • Built fortresses along the Nile
  • Fell to Hyksos invaders around 1650 BC

C. New Kingdom

  • Defeated the Hyksos around 1550 B.C.
  • Built powerful military to protect against invasion
    • First permanent army
  • Extended empire beyond the Nile into the region of Nubia and other lands

iv. Famous Leaders

  • Hatshepsut
    • One of a few women to rule Egypt
    • Proclaimed herself pharaoh
    • Referred to herself as the son of the sun god.
    • Encouraged trade
    • Had statues made that portrayed her as a man
    • Nephew had almost all that she had built destroyed

Hatshepsut on the right

Granite Sphinx bearing the likeness of Hatshepsut.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC.


2. Amenhotep IV

  • Changed his name to Akhenaten
    • Means beloved of Aten
  • Introduced monotheism to Egypt
    • Banned the worship of many gods/goddesses….could only worship Aten
  • Built a new capital called Akhetaten

3. Tutankhamon

  • Also known as King Tut
  • Son of Akhetaten
  • Restored the worship of Egypt’s traditional gods
  • Moved capital back to Thebes
  • Also only tomb in the Valley of the Kings not to be raided

4. Ramses II

  • Also known as Ramses the Great
  • Ruled for 60 years
  • Built more temples and monuments than any other pharaoh
    • Temples at Abu Simbel and Karnak are two of the more famous
  • Reign marked the last period of Egyptian greatness
search and rescue
Search and Rescue
  • Start at your assigned letter. Write it down.
  • Flip open the page, and write the question.
  • Think of the answer. Then, find it at another letter around the room.
  • Write down the answer.
  • Write down the next letter, and repeat.
  • When you have gone to all 9 letters, you will find a secret message!
quiz 1
Quiz 1
  • After the quiz, read Making an Egyptian Mummy.
  • Then, choose one to complete:
    • Create a cartoon depicting the reading.
    • Create an advertisement for one of the levels of mummification.
    • Create an illustrated how-to guide for an embalmer.
  • Please use color!
  • This is due Monday.
february 3 2014
February 3, 2014

How did geography impact early civilizations? Come up with at least 2 examples.

4 egyptian culture
4. Egyptian Culture
  • Religion
    • Polytheistic
      • Worshiped many gods and goddesses
    • Believed gods controlled all natural events
    • Main gods and goddesses
      • Re or Amen-Re
        • The sun god
        • Almost always a key figure in Egyptian religion
        • Believed to be king of the gods and father of the pharaohs

2. Anubis

  • Protector of the dead
  • Believed he weighed the souls of the dead and decided their fate

3. Osiris, Isis, and Horus

  • Osiris is believed to have introduced civilization into Egypt
  • Story goes that he was killed by his brother Seth, who cut his body into pieces and scattered them across Egypt.
  • Isis, Osiris’ wife, found all the pieces and reassembled them and this brought Osiris back to life.
  • They had a child named, Horus who would seek revenge on his uncle

a. Osiris

  • Became the new judge of the dead

b. Isis

  • Became known as the goddess of nature and renewal

c. Horus

  • Became the first king of Egypt

iv. Built temples to honor the gods

  • Featured Obelisks
    • Tall, thin pillars with pyramid-shaped tops
    • Made from a single piece of stone and had intricate designs

v. Priest performed rituals to the gods

  • Seen as their responsibility to care for the gods

vi. People worshiped the gods during annual festivals

  • Not allowed to enter temples; only the priests and pharaohs could.

b. Mummification

  • Believed that a force called the Ka left the body when it died
    • Ka journeyed into the afterlife
  • Developed a process to preserve the body called mummification
  • Early mummification was only for the pharaoh and members of the royal family

iv. Mummification Process

  • First step was removal of internal organs.
    • Organs were placed in jars and buried with the body.
    • The heart was left in the body.
  • Second step was to pack the body with various materials to keep its shape
    • Special salt was used to dry out the body
    • Then it would be wrapped in linens
  • Bodies would then be buried with all possessions thought necessary in the afterlife.

vi. Tombs were painted with colorful scenes from the person’s life or stories about the gods

5 daily life
5. Daily Life
  • Social Structure
    • At the very top the pharaoh and the royal family
      • Followed by priest, government officials, scribes, military leaders, landowners and doctors
    • Next were artisans, craftspeople and merchants
    • Third, was made up of 90% of the population which are farmers
    • At the very bottom were slaves
      • Never made up most of the population
      • Most were convicted criminals and prisoners of war

b. Marriage/ Family

  • Pharaohs would often marry sisters and had more than one wife
  • Most men had only one wife
  • Patriarch society
    • Father was the head of the house

iv. Women

  • Primary responsibility was to take care of the home and children
  • Had more rights than most women in ancient society
    • Could divorce
    • Own and inherit property
    • Serve as priestesses
    • Create wills
    • Work as hairdressers, wigmakers and singers

c. Art, Writing and Science

  • Art
    • Paintings
      • Both detailed and colorful
      • Told stories of daily life, stories of the gods or major events
    • Human figures
      • Portrayed differently
      • Gods and pharaohs are depicted larger than other people
      • These characteristics give Egyptian art a unique style

3. Statues

  • Large and imposing
  • Most famous statue is the Great Sphinx

4. Hieroglyphics

    • Main writing system
    • Picture system used to represent objects, sounds and ideas

ii. Other writing systems

  • Hieratic
    • Used mostly for religious text
  • Demotic
    • Used mainly for legal and literary writing
    • Rarely carved in stone but was used on papyrus and other mediums

iii. The Rosetta Stone

  • Found by a French soldier
  • Stone had three types of writing on it
    • Greek, Demotic and Hieroglyphic
  • Greek allowed for the hieroglyphs to be translated as well as the demotic
  • Unlocked the mystery of Egyptian writing

iv. Mathematics

  • Understood basic arithmetic and basic principles of geometry
  • Had a grasp on engineering

v. Medicine

  • Greatest advances was in medicine
  • Masters of the human anatomy
    • Set bones
    • Treated wounds
    • Performed simple surgical procedures
  • Used medicine from plants and animals to cure simple illness
  • Prescribed regimens of basic hygiene to keep people from getting sick
ancient egyptian civilization foldable
Ancient Egyptian Civilization Foldable
  • Fold a piece of paper in half hot-dog style.
  • To the right of the crease, write each of the following.
    • Geography
    • Leaders
    • Major Gods and Goddesses
    • Social Structure
    • Writing System
    • Building Achievements
    • Sciences
    • Mummification
    • Roles of Women
  • Complete the inside of the foldable using your notes and the text.
create a cartouche
Create a Cartouche
  • A cartouche is the name of a pharaoh written in hieroglyphics.
  • Write your own name, in hieroglyphics, on a cartouche. Color it, and hang it up!
  • Be sure to put your name on the bottom right corner