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How far did the Lincolnshire Rising and the Pilgrimage of Grace threaten the authority of the Monarch? PowerPoint Presentation
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How far did the Lincolnshire Rising and the Pilgrimage of Grace threaten the authority of the Monarch?

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How far did the Lincolnshire Rising and the Pilgrimage of Grace threaten the authority of the Monarch? . What is the historiography surrounding the rebellions?. Historiography – Whose rebellion was it?.

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How far did the Lincolnshire Rising and the Pilgrimage of Grace threaten the authority of the Monarch?

What is the historiography surrounding the rebellions?

historiography whose rebellion was it
Historiography – Whose rebellion was it?
  • Elton (1980): sees PofG as a reaction by northern nobility to Tudor centralisation (’the effort of a defeated Court faction to create a power base….for the purpose of achieving a political victory at court’. He was trying to reassert political history’s importance over social and economic history. E.g. Darcy was very quick to surrender Pontefract and he had the 5 wounds badges! He was a prominent member of the Aragonese faction too and wanted to ‘restore’ Mary (2nd Succession Act in Pontefract articles). Many nobles resented Cromwell’s power and his changes – heresy, Royal Supremacy etc.
  • Fletcher disagrees – Earl of Derby supported King. Lord Dacre kept out of it and Hussey was only on the sidelines. Apart from Darcy, only lesser peers gave support. Link to danger. Additionally, rumours were the ‘stuff’ of the commons; not the nobility. For him, leadership came from the yeomen, skilled craftsmen & clergy (Aske, with London links, was the exception)
  • Dodds (1915): they see the PofG as a popular movement. Yet, did they take evidence of gentry leaders too much at face value. They would want to shift blame from themselves.
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Cont….
  • Hoyle (1985) New primary source evidence. Initiative lay with popular unrest. Gentry often caught off-guard. Constant mistrust between commons and gentry.
  • Bush believes that the commons insisted on gentry taking up leadership roles because that was the ‘order of things’. He also comments on ‘an aristocratic conspiracy of inaction’. They stood aside because they disapproved of govt changes.
  • Gunn believes that the gentry got involved (many of them as JPs) because they saw this as a move for damage limitation.
historiography main causes
Historiography – main causes?
  • Socio-economic (Dodds – 1915). They accepted Cromwell’s emphasis here, but he didn’t want to stress religious motives (explain why)
  • Crown’s intrusion in all kinds of ways (Penry Williams, 1979)
  • Religion; Bush. 16 abbeys restored by Pigrims. NB, however, socio-economic function of abbeys.
  • Fletcher thinks both; Pilgrims ballad made no distinction between different functions of abbeys.
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Task
  • Link all the views above to a scale of danger.
causes dangerous
Causes - Dangerous
  • (L) 3 commissions in the county – dissolving smaller mons, subsidy, inspecting clergy
  • (L) Rumour – commissioners after gold, jewels & plate; extra taxes; churches to be shut down
  • (P) Dissolution (Explain why)
  • (P) Defence of faith – imagery of Catholicism etc. End of Royal Supremacy. Rehabilitation of Mary
  • (P) Socio-economic causes – rack-renting, enclosure etc, taxation (1534 subsidy act allowed for taxes to be collected in peace time)
  • (P) Opposition to Cromwell and his deeds. Useful for nobility and gentry engaging in court politics. Elton claims that the PofG was an orchestrated attempt by the nobility to increase their power and influence at court. They were also against Anne Boleyn.
causes not dangerous
Causes – Not dangerous
  • (P) Too multi-faceted? No one single rallying cry?
aims dangerous
Aims -Dangerous
  • (L) Multi-faceted as depicted in banner. This included 5 wounds of Christ, chalice (explain), plough (enclosure), horn (tax on horned cattle or Horncastle or symbol of nobility)
  • (P) restoration of mons
  • See articles – p137 SHP
aims not dangerous
Aims – Not dangerous
  • (P) No plan to remove king, form an alternative govt. or even cause much violence.
  • (P) Aims were confused. Lists of heretics included Catholics (e.g. bishop Longland of Lincoln). Fletcher; ‘The Pilgrims manifestos were highly eclectic documents’
government response dangerous
Government response - dangerous
  • (P) Total confusion for a time. Contradictory orders
  • (P) Henry won only with false promises and playing for time. He did grant a general pardon and a promise that a parliament would discuss the rebels’ demands.
  • (P) Aske, Darcy and Bigod were executed.
  • (P) Final death toll was 178
  • (P) Subsequently, Percy family lost lands and power. Council of North was reorganised.
government response not dangerous
Government response – not dangerous
  • (P) Clever tactics by Henry and Council
  • (P) Subsequently, Percy family lost lands and power. Council of North was reorganised.
events dangerous
Events - dangerous
  • (L) Murder of chancellor of Bishop of Lincoln
  • (L) Gentry, priests and armed monks joined rebels, as did some Commissioners
  • (L) Organisation – list of grievances
  • (L) 10,000 people assembled at Lincoln
  • (L) Lord Hussey felt the need to flee county
  • (P) Aske was anti- Cromwell and was a successful lawyer. He provided disciplined leadership.
  • (P) 16/10 10,000 rebels made a triumphant entry into York
events dangerous cont
Events – dangerous cont.
  • (P) Capturing of various castles and the spoiling of Bishop Tunstall’s palace at Bishop Aukland. (see map on p.136 for other details)
  • (P)9 ‘well armed hosts’ by October. Co-ordinated. Land north of Don in rebels’ hands.
  • (P)Rising proceeded unimpeded for 3 weeks
  • (P) Darcy surrendered his castle at Pontefract.
  • (P) 30,000 rebels
  • (P) traditional view – one large co-ordinated rebellion
  • (P) Sir Francis Bigod refused to recognise the King’s pardon and promises. He rose in January 1537 (Cumberland rising)
events not dangerous
Events – not dangerous
  • (L) Original leader = cobbler (Nicholas Melton)
  • (L) Collaboration between gentry & commons collapsed. Gentry pleaded for forgiveness & told commons not to continue
  • (L) Did the gentry join in to delay rebels’ progress?
  • (P) Aske always emphasised his peaceful intentions
  • (P) Truce observed whilst Bowes and Elleker petitioned the King. Further negotiations accepted, but rebels split over what to do.
  • (P) King’s pardon read with ‘promises’. Badges torn up. But nothing happened
  • (P) Bush – PofG – series of interconnected regional revolts; not one large fluid movement.
  • (P) Bigod’s rising had little hope of success and gave Henry the evidence of the rebels’ bad faith
conclusion
Conclusion
  • How far do you agree with Fletcher’s view?

‘Given a combination of protest from a wide geographical and social spectrum of northern society, it is easy to see why the Pilgrimage could have been fatal for henry’s government’

‘It came perilously close to succeeding’

‘This was the most dangerous of all the unsuccessful rebellions in the Tudor period’

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Cont….
  • What about those of C.S.L. Davies (1985)
  • ‘The largest popular revolt in English History’
  • But, also ‘The end result….may have been to sow such distrust….between gentry and commons as to prevent any repetition for a generation’.