管 理 學(MANAGEMENT) 交通大學 管理學院 運輸與物流管理學系 任維廉William Feb. 2014
First, make yourself a reputation for being a creative genius. Second, surround yourself with partners who are better than you. Third, leave them to get on with it.—David Ogilvy 管 理 學第一章 管理與組織之基礎簡介
What is manager, management, organization? 定義最難！ 完整版好？精簡版好？ MBA? EMBA? Master of Business Administration 英文版 textbook?
綱 要 1.1 Why are Managers Important? 1.2 Who are Managers?Where do they Work? 1.3 What Do Managers Do? 1.4 How is the Manager’s Job Changing? 1.5 Why Study Management? • (1.6 How Study Management? )
1.1 Why are Managers Important? 1. Organizations need their managerial skills and abilities more than ever in these uncertain, complex, and chaotic times. 2. Managerial skills and abilities are critical in getting things done. 3. Managers do matter to organization. The quality of the employee/supervisor relationship is the most important variable in productivity and loyalty.
Top Middle First-line Non-managerial 1.2 Who Are Managers? 1. 定義 (definition) 2. 層級 (pyramid level) 討論: 1. 分科：產銷人發財（企業功能） 2. CEO(Chief Executive Officer) 3.The Peter Principle
升遷哲學（一）by 好友 廣平兄基層爬升靠努力， 中階突圍憑關係， 高來高去是政治， 下台背影須美麗。
The Peter Principle: Why things always go wrong?In a hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence.
Peter’s Corollary In time, every post tends to be occupied by an employee who is incompetent to carry out its duties.
1. 原因：...... always reward good work with promotion to a more senior job, and rarely punish bad work with demotion.2. 有何負面影響？對員工個人，對組織。 3. 解決之道？員工個人，組織。
Who Are Managers? • 類比： • 明星 or 導演? 千里馬 or 伯樂? • 專精一技之長 or 整合者(通才)? • 將帥無能，累死三軍? • 定義： 1. 針對顧客需要，整合公司資源及人才，（提出新 方向）創造價值的人。 2.Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished.
Classifying Managers • First-line Managers • Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees. • MiddleManagers • Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers. • Top Managers • Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.
Where Do Managers Work? ORGANIZATION! • An Organization Defined • Adeliberate arrangement ofpeopleto accomplish some specificpurpose (that individuals independently could not accomplish alone). • Common Characteristics of Organizations • Have a distinct purpose (goal), 獨特目的 • Composed of people, 由人組成 • Have a deliberate structure, 精巧結構 比較：firm, industry, business
THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION Traditional organization: *stable, inflexible, *work is defined by job positions, permanent jobs, *individual-oriented, command-oriented, rule- oriented…… Contemporary organization: *dynamic, flexible, *work is defined in terms of tasks to be done, temporary jobs, *team-oriented, involvement-oriented, customer-oriented……
1.3 What Do Managers Do? What is Management? 定義最難！ • 溝通協調：整合團隊，連結資源 • 做人做事，分工合作 • 群策群力，以竟事功 • 更精簡的？ 由人視事
What Is Management? Definition: • Getting things done through and with people. • coordinating and overseeing the work activities of othersso that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. * I’m the best! Vs. We are the best!
Managerial Concerns • Efficiency 效率 • “Doing things right” • Getting the most output for the least inputs • Low resource waste • Effectiveness 效能 • “Doing the right things” • Attaining organizational goals • High goal attainment 討論：doing the right things right. －doing a few right things right－ 18
Approaches: 群盲摸象，以簡御繁 1. 功能 (function), process, content * 區分Management VS. Business functions 2. 角色 (role) 3. 技巧 (skill) 4. Others, e.g., Attitude: Believes, Action, Guts, Ethics Function(POLC) Management Skill (THC……) Role (IID……)
FUNCTIONAL APPROACH Henri Fayol, Harold Koontz • Planning • Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. • Organizing • Arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals. • Leading • Working with and through people to accomplish goals. • Controlling • Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work.
MANAGEMENT ROLES APPROACHHenry Mintzberg • Interpersonal roles • Figurehead, leader, liaison • Informational roles • Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson • Decisionalroles • Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator • Q. Are you a thinker or doer? • A. Both. 1. reflection (thinking), 2. action (doing). * 演什麼像什麼。
SKILLS APPROACH Robert Katz • Technical skills • Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field • Human skills • The ability to work well with other people • Conceptual skills • The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization
1.4 How is the Manager’s Job Changing? Changing Technology (Digitization) Increased Emphasis on Organizational and Managerial Ethics Increased Competitiveness Increased Security Threats
The Increasing Importance of CSIS • Customers: the reason that organizations exist • Delivering consistent high quality customer service is essential for survival. • Social media • Managers Forms of electronic communication through which users create online communities to share ideas, information, personal messages, and other content. • Innovation: Doing things differently, exploring new territory, and taking risks • Managers should encourage employees to be aware of and act on opportunities for innovation. • Sustainability a company’s ability to achieve its business goals and increase long-term shareholder value by integrating economic, environmental, and social opportunities into its business strategies. 26
1.5Why Study Management? 1. Universality of Management: The reality that management is needed. 2. The reality of work: Employees either manage or are managed. 3. Rewards and challenges of being a manager. 討論： • 為何這麼多人申請Harvard MBA? EDP? • 「非線性」的人生
「非線性」的人生 1. 直線型人生旅程： 求學，工作，結婚，生子，養育，退休。 2.「非線性」的人生階段： 出現反反覆覆的循環。
REWARDS AND CHALLENGES OF BEING A MANAGER Rewards: *responsible for creating a productive work environment *receive recognition and status in organization and community *receive appropriate compensation in form of salaries, bonuses, and stock options Challenges: *can be a thankless job *may entail clerical type duties * managers also spend significant amounts of time in meetings and dealing with interruptions *managers often have to deal with a variety of personalities and have to make do with limited resources
(1.6 How Study Management? )1. Come to class, 2.Read the book, 3. Do your assignment: 1~10組 1. Case study: a manager’s dilemma 2. Thinking critically about ethics dilemma 3. Skills exercise 4. Team exercise 5. To be a manager (Internet-based exercise)
Do your assignment: 1~4組 1. Case study: a manager’s dilemma (p.28) (1) Identify and articulate business problems (2) Gather and analyze information applicable (3) Identify and apply an appropriate tool for solving problems. 2. Thinking critically about ethics (p.46) (1) Identifies Dilemma. (2) Considers Stakeholders (3) Analyzes Alternatives and Consequences
Do your assignment: 5~10組 3. Skill exercise: political skill (p.47) 4. Team exercise: characteristics of good managers (p.47) 5. To be a manager (Internet-based exercise) :5 master managers (p.47) Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Steve Jobs, David Ogilvy, Richard Branson, Louis Gerstner, Andrew Grove, Jack Welch, Larry Page, Elon Musk (p.35), 謝家華 (Zappos, p.91), 豐田章男(Akio Toyoda, p.75), 平井一夫, 柳井正, 李健熙, 李嘉誠, 柳傳志, 任正非, 張瑞敏, 馬雲, 張忠謀, 施振榮, 郭台銘, 張榮發, 戴勝益 ……
回 顧 1. Explain why managers are important to organizations. 2. Tell who managers are and where they work. 3. Describe the functions, roles, and skills of managers. 4. Describe the factors that are reshaping and redefining the manager’s job. 5. Explain the value of studying management.
Terms to Know • interpersonal roles • informational roles • decisional roles • technical skills • human skills • conceptual skills • organization • manager • first-line managers • middle managers • top managers • management • efficiency • Effectiveness • planning • organizing • leading • controlling
Women in Managerial Positions Around the World Women in Management Australia 41.9 percent Canada 36.3 percent Germany 35.6 percent Japan 10.1 percent Philippines 57.8 percent United States 50.6 percent Women in Top Manager’s Job 3.0 percent 4.2 percent N/A N/A N/A 2.6 percent
討論：學習管理有捷徑？ 1. Peters, T. J. & Waterman, R.H., In search of excellence, 八個共同特徵 2. Pascale, R.T. & Athos, A.G., The art of Japanese management, 七S架構 3. Grove, A. S., High output management, 生產，槓桿，組織，激勵 4. 其他：中譯本，華人企業管理，computer game, role play……
八個共同特徵 1. 傾向行動 2. 接近顧客 3. 給員工自主 4. 透過人員參與提高生產力 5. 公司正派，管理者主動投入問題 6. 做內行事 7. 組織結構單純，幕僚少 8. 嚴守核心價值，其餘則放手鼓勵創新 38
七S架構 1. Strategy 2. Structure 3. System 4. Skill 5. Style 6. Staff 7. Shared Value 39