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Management 11e John Schermerhorn . Chapter 2 Management Learning Past to Present. Planning Ahead — Chapter 2 Study Questions. What can be learned from classical management thinking? What insights come from behavioral management approaches?

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management 11e john schermerhorn

Management11e John Schermerhorn

Chapter 2

Management Learning Past to Present

planning ahead chapter 2 study questions
Planning Ahead — Chapter 2 Study Questions
  • What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • What insights come from behavioral management approaches?
  • What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
study question 1 what can be learned from classical management thinking
Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)
    • Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job
    • Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job
    • Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives
    • Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles
study question 1 what can be learned from classical management thinking5
Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • Scientific management (the Gilbreths)
    • Motion study
      • Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions
    • Eliminating wasted motions improves performance
study question 1 what can be learned from classical management thinking6
Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • Practical lessons from scientific management
    • Make results-based compensation a performance incentive
    • Carefully design jobs with efficient work methods
    • Carefully select workers with the abilities to do these jobs
    • Train workers to perform jobs to the best of their abilities
    • Train supervisors to support workers so they can perform jobs to the best of their abilities
study question 1 what can be learned from classical management thinking7
Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) — rules of management:
study question 1 what can be learned from classical management thinking8
Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • Administrative principles (Henri Fayol)
    • Scalar chain
      • there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization
    • Unity of command
      • each person should receive orders from only one boss
    • Unity of direction
      • one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance objective
study question 1 what can be learned from classical management thinking9
Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber)
    • Bureaucracy
      • An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization
      • Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority
study question 1 what can be learned from classical management thinking10
Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations:
    • Clear division of labor
    • Clear hierarchy of authority
    • Formal rules and procedures
    • Impersonality
    • Careers based on merit
study question 1 what can be learned from classical management thinking11
Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy:
    • Excessive paperwork or “red tape”
    • Slowness in handling problems
    • Rigidity in the face of shifting needs
    • Resistance to change
    • Employee apathy

Chapter 2

study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Behavioral Management - human resource approaches include:
    • Hawthorne studies
    • Maslow’s theory of human needs
    • Mary Parker Follett’s Organizations as communities
    • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
    • Argyris’s theory of adult personality
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches14
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Organizations as communities – Mary Parker Follett
    • Groups and human cooperation:
      • Groups allow individuals to combine their talents for a greater good
      • Organizations are cooperating “communities” of managers and workers
      • Manager’s job is to help people cooperate and achieve an integration of interests
study question 1 what can be learned from classical management thinking15
Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
  • Organizations as communities
    • Forward-looking management insights:
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches16
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Hawthorne studies
    • Initial study examined how economic incentives and physical conditions affected worker output
    • No consistent relationship found
    • “Psychological factors” influenced results
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches17
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Hawthorne studies (cont.)
    • Relay assembly test-room studies
      • Manipulated physical work conditions to assess impact on output
      • Designed to minimize the “psychological factors” of previous experiment
      • Factors that accounted for increased productivity:
        • Group atmosphere
        • Participative supervision
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches18
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Hawthorne studies (cont.)
    • Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations and group processes
      • Some things satisfied some workers but not others
      • People restricted output to adhere to group norms
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches19
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Lessons from the Hawthorne Studies:
    • Social and human concerns are keys to productivity
    • Hawthorne effect — people who are singled out for special attention perform as expected
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches20
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Maslow’s theory of human needs
    • A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency a person feels compelled to satisfy
    • Need levels:
      • Physiological
      • Safety
      • Social
      • Esteem
      • Self-actualization
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches22
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Maslow’s theory of human needs
    • Deficit principle
      • A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior
    • Progression principle
      • A need becomes a motivator once the preceding lower-level need is satisfied
    • Both principles cease to operate at self-actualization level
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches23
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • McGregor’s Theory X assumes that workers:
    • Dislike work
    • Lack ambition
    • Are irresponsible
    • Resist change
    • Prefer to be led
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches24
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • McGregor’s Theory Y assumes that workers are:
    • Willing to work
    • Capable of self control
    • Willing to accept responsibility
    • Imaginative and creative
    • Capable of self-direction
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches25
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Implications of Theory X and Theory Y:
    • Managers create self-fulfilling prophecies
    • Theory X managers create situations where workers become dependent and reluctant
    • Theory Y managers create situations where workers respond with initiative and high performance
      • Central to notions of empowerment and self-management
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches26
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Argyris’s theory of adult personality
    • Classical management principles and practices inhibit worker maturation and are inconsistent with the mature adult personality
study question 2 what insights come from the behavioral management approaches27
Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?
  • Argyris’s theory of adult personality
    • Management practices should accommodate the mature personality by:
      • Increasing task responsibility
      • Increasing task variety
      • Using participative decision making
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Foundations for continuing developments in management
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking29
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Management science or operations research
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking30
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Management science or operations research
      • Queuing theory allocates service personnel/workstations to minimize service cost and customer waiting time
      • Network models break large tasks into smaller components for for better coordination
      • Simulations create problem models to test different solutions
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking31
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Operations management is the study of how organizations produce goods and services
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking32
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Organizations as Systems
    • System
      • Collection of interrelated parts that function together to achieve a common purpose
    • Subsystem
      • A smaller component of a larger system
    • Open systems
      • Organizations that interact with their environments in the continual process of transforming resource inputs into outputs
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking34
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Contingency thinking
    • Tries to match managerial responses with problems and opportunities unique to different situations
    • No “one best way” to manage
    • Appropriate way to manage depends on the situation
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking35
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Quality and performance excellence
    • Managers and workers in progressive organizations are quality conscious
      • Quality and competitive advantage are linked
    • Total quality management (TQM)
      • Comprehensive approach to continuous quality improvement for a total organization
      • Creates context for the value chain
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking36
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Quality and performance excellence
    • ISO certification
      • Global quality benchmark
      • Refine and upgrade quality to meet ISO standards
    • Continuous improvement
      • Continual search for new ways to improve quality
      • Something always can and should be improved
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking37
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning
    • Knowledge management is the process of using intellectual capital for competitive advantage
    • Portfolio of intellectual assets include patents, intellectual property rights, trade secrets, and accumulated knowledge of the entire workforce
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking38
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Learning organizations
    • Organizations that are able to continually learn and adapt to new circumstances
    • Core ingredients include:
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking39
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Evidence-Based Management
    • Making management decisions on “hard facts” about what really works
study question 3 what are the foundations of modern management thinking40
Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
  • Evidence-Based Positive Human Resource Management Practices
    • Employment security
    • Selective hiring
    • Self-managing teams
    • High pay based on merit
    • Training and development
    • Reduced status distinctions
    • Shared information
chapter 2 case
Chapter 2 Case
  • Zara International: Fashion at the speed of light
for activities and assessments please visit
For activities and assessments, please visit…
  • www.wiley.com/college/schermerhorn