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Advanced Driver Training

Advanced Driver Training

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Advanced Driver Training

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  1. Advanced Driver Training Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  2. The goal of the HFD Advanced Driver Operator course is to provide effective defensive driving principle and technique training while maintaining City of Henderson mandatory requirements for all public safety personnel Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  3. Purpose • Review of NRS, Department SOPs, and Advanced Driver Training procedures • Defensive Driving • Vehicle Dynamics • Emergency Driving • Document Class Sunpro/FRO/EVOC: Internet-Advanced Driver Training Refresh/Renew for all FRO • Attend Practical portion as scheduled by BC • Practical portion will be documented by the Training Division Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  4. Nevada Revised Statutes, NFPA 1451 and Applicable Department SOPs Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  5. Law of Due Regard All patients and crew members have the right to know that while being entrusted in your care, you are exercising "due regard" for their safety. If ever a crash should occur while you are operating an ambulance, the courts will judge your actions according to this principle. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  6. SOP D-06 Operation of Fire Department Vehicles Section C Driver Safety (excerpt) C. Driver Safety • When responding to emergency calls under Code 3 conditions, Fire Department vehicles may exceed the posted speed limit, but shall be regulated AT ALL TIMES by existing road and traffic conditions. At no time will any Fire Department vehicle exceed 10 mph above the posted speed limit. Pumpers, trucks, tenders, and other vehicles of 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight (GVW) or more shall not exceed 55 miles per hour, except on freeway responses, which shall not exceed the posted speed limit (65 miles per hour). • Under hazardous weather or road conditions, Fire Department vehicles shall not exceed the posted speed limit. • The Henderson fire Department recommends use of lights and sirens on all emergency calls to alert pedestrians and other drivers. Use of the siren may be eliminated when conditions indicate there are no other drivers/pedestrians at risk, in accordance with state law. When intersections are congested and no route of egress exists, all lights and sirens shall be used together OR all emergency signals but the Opticom shut down until the intersection clears Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  7. SOP D-06 Operation of Fire Department Vehicles Section C Driver Safety (excerpt) • Unless all lanes can be accounted for by the driver during an emergency response, Fire Department vehicles shall come to a complete stop at all red light intersections and intersections with stop or yield signs. Rule of thumb: "If you can't see, STOP". At traffic signals with a green light, department vehicles shall slow to a speed that will allow for safe clearing of the intersection. At no time shall department vehicles exceed the posted speed limit through a traffic signal with a green light. • Avoid backing where possible. When backing is unavoidable, reference SOP D-08 BackingApparatus and Vehicles Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  8. SOP D-06 Operation of Fire Department Vehicles Section C Driver Safety (excerpt) B. Operation of City Vehicles General Operator Responsibilities • The driver is responsible for checking the safety and general condition of the vehicle, including gas and oil level. If there is something wrong with the vehicle, document discrepancies on the OIG form, then email Fire Shop, the B/C’s and the other shifts at the same station, noting the vehicle “shop number” and the problems to be addressed. • The driver is responsible for passenger safety, cargo / equipment loading and tie down, and the attachment of towed equipment. Employees being trained in the operation of a vehicle or piece of equipment must have an instruction permit for the class of vehicle they are learning to drive and a qualified trainer with them at all times. The trainer retains the driver responsibilities listed above. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  9. SOP D-06 Operation of Fire Department Vehicles Section C Driver Safety • B. Operation of City Vehicles (continued) • All City of Henderson employees are required to use seat belts when operating a city vehicle equipped with seat belts. Anyone riding as a passenger in a city vehicle is required to use seat belts where provided. Child restraint systems (car seats, etc.) must be utilized for all children who are less than 6 years of age and/or weigh less than 60 pounds when riding in all vehicles. Children who are less than 6 years of age and/or weigh less than 60 pounds will not ride in the front seat of vehicles equipped with airbags. Seatbelts are required to be worn for all crew members and patients while providing patient care unless it hinders providing effective patient care. • During an emergency response, fire vehicles should avoid passing other emergency vehicles. If unavoidable, the passing arrangement should be conducted through radio communications. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  10. SOP EM15 Freeway Response / Road Way Safety Roadway/Freeway Incidents • Operate Code 1 while responding on Freeways. •  If traffic is congested and conditions dictate, operate Code 3 using the emergency travel lane that provides the best access. If using the right lane, use extreme caution. • Use caution while passing in congested conditions. •  At no time shall emergency vehicles travel against traffic on freeways, on-ramps or off-ramps. • Units responding on freeways must not stop to off load personnel or equipment for incidents on the opposite side. Continue on to the next exit and return back with the flow of traffic. •  Rescues shall position downstream from the incident, a safe distance away, with consideration of potential fluid, smoke, or other hazards path of travel whenever possible; or as directed by the Incident Commander. •  Engines / Trucks shall position a safe distance upstream from the incident with consideration of potential fluid, smoke or other hazards path of travel; or as directed by the Incident Commander. •  Engines / Trucks shall position their vehicles at an angle to create a Safe Work Zone that covers the involved lane and creating at least one additional safety lane on either side of the incident. The road shoulder will be considered a travel lane. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  11. SOP EM15 Freeway Response/Roadway Safety Roadway/Freeway Incidents (continued) • When angling to protect a scene, first priority shall be given to protecting the pump panel on incidents where it is suspected a hose line may be deployed. • Cones and lights are not considered physical barriers, they are warning devices. Cones shall be placed downstream from the protecting apparatus, past the scene, to the Rescue to prevent traffic from prematurely merging back into the incident. •  Every effort should be made to keep traffic from passing on both sides of an incident, creating an “Incident Island” when an incident is in the middle lane of a multi-lane highway. Close off all lanes to one side or the other. • A Truck, if available or a second Engine Company should be requested to respond to all freeway incidents. The first-in Engine Company shall follow previous procedures. The Second-in Truck / Engine Company shall assist in slowing traffic further upstream in situations involving incident locations relative to blind cures, hills, or any other existing situation. The Incident Commander may use the second apparatus to secure additional lanes or cancel as deemed necessary. •  Officers may request Nevada Highway Patrol to shut down the freeway from the nearest on-ramp as deemed necessary. Consider Henderson Police Department assistance when NHP is delayed •  If, in the opinion of the Officer on scene, the incident will require protection beyond a 30 minute time period the Nevada Department of Transportation shall be notified so they may assist in setting up a temporary work zone for highway incidents. • Everyone operating in the Safe Work Zone shall maintain an awareness of its borders and remain vigilant of its inherent weaknesses. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  12. Defensive Driving Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  13. City of Henderson Statistics Note: City Cost – Amount to repair city vehicles Liability Cost – Amount paid to another party for property and injury claims.

  14. FIRE Motor Vehicle Accident Fire Rescue traveling Code 3 when the adverse vehicle pulled out in path of the city vehicle. Damage to city vehicle in excess of $250,000. DOL: 7/2/2007

  15. FIRE MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS City vehicle stopped at red light, a passing truck struck side mirror. City damage: $170.00 DOL: 2/24/2010

  16. FIRE Motor Vehicle Accidents Property damage: $3,831.54 Air brakes not applied on City vehicle and rolled into block wall. DOL: 12/01/2012

  17. FIRE Motor Vehicle Accidents City vehicle was involved in rear end motor vehicle accident, causing a chain-reaction. This resulted in a 6-vehicle accident. The City paid $192,094.94 in property damage and bodily injury claims. (One injury claim still open as of 1/2013.) (City Damages: $6,138)

  18. FIRE Motor Vehicle Accidents Always check signage! Driver did not check height of vehicle. $1,233.57 in damages to City Vehicle. DOL: 2/5/2011

  19. FIRE Motor Vehicle Accidents City Vehicle struck by a vehicle traveling the wrong way. ($658.75 in damages to City Vehicle.) DOL: 6/11/2011

  20. Pre-shift Vehicle Inspection • It is essential that firefighters properly inspect their vehicle before each shift. • SOP D-04 Vehicle Checkout details the expectations of an operator for the daily and weekly inspections of rescues, engines, and ladder trucks. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  21. Driver Training is necessary to avoid accidents and ensure the safe arrival to the emergency scene. • “ If we cannot get there, How can we be of any help?” Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  22. Driver Preparation for all vehicles • Adjust seat for maximum freedom • Arms should be away while slightly bent • Hand placement @ 9 and 3 with a hand drop technique & hand over hand • Sit upright in the back of the seat • Adjust mirrors accordingly • SEAT BELTS • Heel of foot should be positioned so that the ball of the foot is used to depress the throttle or brake without lifting-preferable beneath the right side of the pedal • Familiarize yourself with the instrument panel Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  23. Defensive Driving • Because firefighters have had training and have extensive driving experience, they must never assume that they are immune from becoming involved in collisions that can lead to serious injury, disciplinary action, and lawsuits. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  24. Safety Belts • Safety belts have proven to be the single most effective means of protecting vehicle occupants from serious injury or death in a collision. • Most agency policies require the use of safety belts. SOP D-06 Operation of Fire Department Vehicles states: All City of Henderson employees are required to use seat belts (with the exception of an ambulance attendant while transporting a patient) when operating a city vehicle equipped with seat belts. Anyone riding as a passenger in a City vehicle is required to use seat belts where provided. Members must ride in a seat where provided. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  25. Computer in the Cab Computers should be utilized to determine location of other units responding to same dispatch. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  26. Intersections • Intersections pose the greatest potential for collisions. Defensive drivers, even if they have the right of way, must visually clear intersections (lane by lane) by looking for cross traffic and pedestrians. • A defensive driver should always assume that every lane of traffic is occupied until they can prove otherwise. • A good rule upon approach to an intersection is to never approach faster than you can safely stop. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  27. Clearing Intersections where all Lanes are Blocked Drivers may encounter intersections where all travel lanes are blocked by vehicles that are stopped for the red traffic signal. In these cases, operators must use good judgment in determining if the response warrants the increased hazards of clearing such congested intersections without waiting for the traffic signal to change green. 27 Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  28. Entering Controlled Intersections The greatest potential for collisions during an emergency response is at intersections. The rule for entering intersections is to enter no faster than you can safely stop. Guidelines on the following slide will help in safely entering controlled intersections when conducting an emergency response. 28 Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  29. Passing other Motorists Operators need to give other drivers a chance to yield the right-of-way. Operators should drive to the extreme left edge of the lane to be seen by other drivers. Since other drivers are required to yield by pulling to the right, operators should avoid passing any moving vehicle on the right side. A driver who does not see the emergency vehicle may turn into its path. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  30. Changing Lanes • Lane change collisions occur when drivers fail to check their blind spot and then they fail to signal. • Drivers need to check their blind spot (which can be large in Fire vehicles) by looking over their shoulders and checking the mirrors. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  31. Good Judgment Drivers must always use sound judgment. Drivers must always drive at a speed that is reasonable and prudent, taking into consideration: The safety of others (484.261) Traffic conditions Weather & road conditions Time of day 31 Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  32. Ethics • Firefighters are often called to respond to an emergency as quickly as possible, knowing that the outcome may rest in the balance. • It is the obligation of all personnel to respond in a responsible manner, weighing the risk of their speed against the risk to the public posed by the call. • Failure to comply with law & policy can result in criminal prosecution, civil liability, and disciplinary action by the agency. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  33. Physiological Factors • Attitudes & emotions can elicit a response that can adversely affecting driving • Rapid pulse and/or breathing • Tunnel vision • Increased adrenaline flow • Loss of sensory perception (hearing / time) • Deterioration of decision-making ability • Loss of motor skills • Fatigue Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  34. Psychological Factors • These attitudes and emotions influence judgment and decision-making • Excitement • Impatience • Overconfidence • Self-righteousness (ego) • Fear • Peer pressure • Preoccupation Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  35. Vehicle Dynamics 35 Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  36. Vehicle Dynamics A vehicle dynamic is any force or condition that affects the path of a vehicle. A driver using proper techniques can reduce the effects of these forces, resulting in better control of the vehicle. 36 Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  37. Vehicle Platform The vehicle platform refers to the general vehicle attitude. • When stopped, the vehicle platform is flat or stable. • Vehicle control inputs cause weight to be transferred, which affects the vehicle platform. • By applying smooth control inputs, drivers can reduce extreme changes to the vehicle platform and keep it as flat as possible. 37 Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  38. Weight Transfer Vehicle weight is transferred during turning, braking, and acceleration. • Smooth control inputs can minimize this transfer of weight, resulting in better vehicle control. 38 Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  39. Throttle Control • The throttle, or gas pedal, regulates the speed of the vehicle. • The operation of the throttle has a definite and immediate affect on weight transfer. • Smooth operation of the throttle (applying and removing) is critical for maximum vehicle control. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  40. Tires • Tires are the single-most important mechanical part of a vehicle • Under-inflation is the most common tire problem and cause of high-speed tire failure, affecting about 25% of the vehicle on the road. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  41. Braking Method • A vehicle performs its most efficient braking while traveling in a straight line. • Therefore, prior to turning, drivers should apply 80 to 90% of the necessary braking before entering the turn, keeping in mind that up to 30% of the vehicle’s braking capability may be achieved from the friction created while turning. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  42. Brake Fade • Brake fade is the loss of braking efficiency due to heat build up. • Brake fade can result from improper use of brakes. • Threshold braking can help minimize heat build up. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  43. Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) • The Anti-lock Braking System is a computerized emergency backup system that helps maintain rolling friction during hard braking. ABS prevents wheel lockup so the driver can maintain steering capability. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  44. Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) • During ABS activation, the driver should expect a pulsating sensation from the brake pedal. • The driver should keep firm pressure applied to the brake pedal. • In the event of ABS activation, the driver should not release and reapply the brakes because the ABS system must then reanalyze the braking situation, greatly increasing stopping distance. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  45. ABS Failure • In the event of ABS failure, the normal braking system continues to operate. • Since ABS is not available, threshold braking techniques should be used. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  46. Locked-wheel Skid • In the event the ABS system fails or the vehicle is not equipped with ABS, hard braking can result in a locked-wheel skid. • This means that all wheels have stopped turning and are skidding over the roadway surface. • This will result in loss of steering control. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  47. Hydroplaning • Hydroplaning occurs when a tire loses full contact with the road due to water build up between the tire and roadway. • The amount of water build up under the tire is directly related to the speed of the vehicle. • A tire can hydroplane on anything that separates it from the roadway. • When the vehicle beings to hydroplane depends on a combination of vehicle weight, speed, tread depth, and water depth. Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  48. Emergency Driving Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  49. Laws Governing Emergency Driving It is important for drivers to remember that this section does not relieve the operator from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons and does not protect the driver from the consequences of his (her) reckless disregard for the safety of others. 49 Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER

  50. Due Care Operators are required to drive with due care for the safety of others, even when responding to emergency calls. Drivers must be aware of potential distractions while operating an emergency vehicle. Some of the distractions encountered: Other traffic Fire radio Finding way to calls using computer/map 50 Advanced Driver Training RENEWAL/REFRESHER