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Paludism / Malaria : Two names , an ignored problem. Oral presentation by Matthieu Ravelomanantsoa Yaniss Ouamri. Plan :. Introduction Parasites - Vector - Cycle Epidemiology Diagnosis & Prevention Conclusion. 1) Introduction. Paludism : from latin paludis «  marsh  »

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paludism malaria two names an ignored problem

Paludism / Malaria : Twonames,an ignoredproblem

Oral presentation by

Matthieu Ravelomanantsoa

YanissOuamri

slide2

Plan :

Introduction

Parasites - Vector - Cycle

Epidemiology

Diagnosis & Prevention

Conclusion

1 introduction

1) Introduction

Paludism : fromlatinpaludis « marsh »

Malaria : fromitalianmal'aria « bad air »

Infectiousdisease Hemolyticanemia

Parasites : Plasmodiums

Propagation : Anopheles (mosquitos) punctures

World’smost important parasitosis

paludism humanity a long time intrication

Paludism & humanity, a long timeintrication :

HumanPathogen for 50.000 years

Sickle-cellanemia, G6PDH deficiency, thalassemia

Toutankhamon DNA’sanalysis : diedof paludism.

Hippocrates : describedpaludism’sdifferentfevers.

Christopher Colombus : hadpaludismsymptoms.

1880 : Laveran discovers the cause in Algeria :

plasmodiums in redbloodcells Nobel Prize in 1907.

2 parasites cycle vector

2) Parasites / Cycle / Vector

5 kinds of plasmodiums affect humans :

  • Zoonosis :
    • Intermediate host : Man
    • Final host : anophele
  • Protozoa parasites :
    • 1 or 2 µm
  • Coloration MGG :
    • Blue cytoplasm
    • Red nucleus

P. Falciparum+++

P. Vivax

P. Ovale

P. Malariae

P. Knowlesi (simianorigin)

slide6

One vector : Anopheles

Latin : anôphelês « useless »

Pools somespecies of mosquitos

Final host of plasmodiums

Bite only by night

Only the females do bite : hematophagusspecie.

Attracted by : CO2, lacticacid, sebum, heat, perspiration.

Paludism’sprevalence : directlyrelated to its distribution.

slide7

Anophele’s cycle : sexual

Bite  Gametocytes♂+♀ fromhuman’sblood :

fecundation  oocyste in anophele’sstomach.

Each oocyste containsmanySporozoa

Final location :Salivary glands.

Next bite : transmission of sporozoa.

slide8

Man’s cycle : asexual

Cycle’sdurationdependson the plasmodium specie and isrelatated

To the kind of fever (24h : quotidian, 48h : tertian , 72h : quartan)

Bite  sporozoa in man’s blood  hepatocytes

Hepatocytesburst : Merozoa release  2 future locations :

Redcells : - for all plasmodium species

- responsible for redcellsburst  Anemia

Liver : - Only for P. Vivax / Ovale / Malariae

-  Hypnozoa : quiescent parasites

- Responsible for relapses of the disease.

3 epidemiology

3) Epidemiology

Related to anophele’s distribution

Alarmingstatistics, eachyear :

2 Billions : exposedpersons

100 Millions : personswithcinicalsigns of paludism

1 to 3 Millions : deathfrompaludism

most of the death : childrenunder 5 yearsold.

Each 30 seconds : 1 death.

slide11

WHO : Divides world map in 4 categories

Group 0 : No paludismGroup 2 : Paludism and resistance to treatment

Group 1 : Paludism but no resistanceGroup 3 : Paludisme, and Multi-resistance

slide12
Group O cases :

Imported cases aftervisitingrisky countries

Cases afterblood-transfusion

Airportpaludismphenomenon

4 diagnosis prevention

4) Diagnosis/Prevention

  • Symptoms :
  • Asthenia
  • Anorexia
  • Giddinesses
  • Cephalgias
  • Digestive disorders:
  • nauseas, vomiting, abdominal pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Myalgias.
  • Signs :
  • Periodic Fever
  • Anemia
  • Thrombopenia
  • Intermittent tremors
  • Hemoglobinuria Icterus
  • Convulsions
  • Splenomegaly
  • Hepatomegaly
slide14

Paludism is a medical emergency :

Results of exams : 2 hours.

Smear fromblood MGG

Thick-Smear fromblood  MGG

DetectingcirculatingAntigenes

Aftertreatment : control.

 research of hematozoa.

slide15

Treatment :

No vaccine available

ACT(Artemisinin-basedcombinationtherapy)

 The only one to bereally efficient.

Problems :

Veryexpensive

False drugs

slide16

Prevention : Prophylaxis

Fightagainstanophele’sdevelopement

ChemicalRepellents

Mosquito nets

For occidental tourists : Chloroquine

Depending on the destination

Treatmentbefore contamination

France : bad observance

 7000 Paludism cases a year.

4 conclusion

4) Conclusion

Mechanism and physiopathology are perfectlyknown

Treatmentavailable

Still a massive killer in the third world country