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Climate Change, Environment &Natural Resource Management. The 3 rd Lake Victoria Basin Donors’ conference 17 th -18 th June 2013 Mr. Mathias Chemonges. PRESENTATION OUTLINE. Background /Introduction. Climate Change, Environment and Natural Resources
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Climate Change, Environment &Natural Resource Management The 3rd Lake Victoria Basin Donors’ conference 17th -18th June 2013 Mr. Mathias Chemonges
PRESENTATION OUTLINE Background /Introduction • Climate Change, Environment and Natural Resources • Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) Programme for the Mt. Elgon Ecosystem • Intergrated Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Programme in Lake Victoria Basin • Regional Water Resources Management Project • Mechanical removal of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria • Kisat River Catchment Restoration Project (KRCRP) • Nyungwe –KibiraTransboundary Conservation Programme • Development of the state of the lake and Basin Report Project Concept Notes
MORPHOMETRIC DATA FOR LVB • Million at beach level), Foreign exchange ~ US $ 250 million • Major water transport linkage for the landlocked Uganda, Kagera
CHALLENGES: Environmental stresses in the Basin • Deteriorating water quality – caused by increased sedimentation, and pollution and eutrophication • Fluctuating lake levels – due to unsustainable LVB water management practices • Overexploitation of natural resources – caused by increased basin population and competition over natural resources • Resurgence of water hyacinth • Climate change Four main types impacting the LVB: • Stresses within the lake – over-fishing, untreated liquid wastes, water hyacinth, over-abstraction • Stresses on littoral zones – construction and farming in shoreline, conversion of wetlands, poor solid wastes management • Stresses from the basin – land degradation, deforestation, inflow of water hyacinth, pollution from agro-chemicals, sediment loads, poor solid waste management • Stresses from outside the basin – nutrients (N and P) transported into the basin by air, climate change
Environmental stress within the LVB • Stresses on littoral zones • Stresses within the lake • Stresses from outside the basin– • Stresses from the basin
Environmental Stress in LVB • Stresses within the lake – • e.g., over-fishing, oil spills, untreated liquid wastes, water hyacinth, over-abstraction of water from the lake and its basin. • Fish Frame-survey 2012 shows overfishing of through increase of illegal gillnet by 26% but mostly for 2 ½” and 3 ½”There was a serious increase in legal nets of size > 10 by 343% and the 10” by 156% compared to 2010 Survey. • In 2005 average BOD in, 5000Kg day respectively in major cities Littoral zones e.g., construction and farming in shoreline, conversion of wetlands, poor solid wastes management.estimated about 75% of Lake Victoria’s wetland area has been affected significantly by human activity • Stresses from outside the basinnutrients (N and P) transported into the basin by air, climate change. In 2005/6 estimated atmospheric depositions accounted for about 60% of the total Phosphorus and over 80% of the total N loading to the lake. • Stresses from the basin • e.g., land degradation, deforestation, inflow of water hyacinth, pollution from agro-chemicals, sediment loads, poor solid waste management. • Water hyacinth coverage in 2010 Kenya 10,000ha and TZ=540ha. • The deforestation rate is estimated to be 55,000 to 100,000 ha per year, based on habitat change from 1990-1995.
UPSTREAM DEFORESTATION Increasing encroachment of littoral wetlands for agriculture Increasing watershed degradation due to poor land use practices
TSS (mg/l) Secchi depth (m) 0 65 Effects of Lake Level fluctuations Eutrophication • Visibility decreased by about 75%. (Max readings at 70 m depth in Feb 2006 was ~5 m) Terminal at Mwanza South port left hanging
Introduction to REDD+ 006 - REDD+ FOR MT. ELGON ECOSYSTEMPROJECT CONCEPT NOTE REDD+ refers to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and also sustainable forest management, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. A REDD+ program can encompass a range of activities within a designated area, e.g: tree planting, agroforestry, training & education, microfinance. Governments – including Uganda & Kenya are developing national REDD+ strategies applying general UNFCCC guidelines and with donor support. Carbon markets can help to finance sustainable land management activities for the benefit of communities, global and local environment. Sub-national (project-based) initiatives can help increase national capacity, and provide additional resources to the national REDD+ program. The LVBC would like to work with relevant partners to develop a trans-boundary, sub-national REDD+ initiative in the Mt. Elgon area.
REDD+ Contd.. An international performance-based system is being developed for REDD+ under the UNFCCC. Voluntary carbon market standards have methodologies that allow sub-national projects to receive carbon credits for REDD+ activities. These follow the same principles that non-forestry UNFCCC carbon credit projects. Long-term the funding is likely to come from the private sector, through markets. Total value of carbon market in 2011 was over 176 Billion US dollars. The Mt Elgon REDD+ initiative will seek to use voluntary carbon market funding for activities, AND will complement the national systems that are being developed.
REDD+ Project Objectives • To create a framework for a trans-boundary sub-national REDD+ programme including shared methodology components, monitoring system, and harmonized governance mechanisms. • Implement at least 2 distinct REDD+ projects, one in Kenya and in Uganda, which can be a national REDD+ demonstration pilot for each country. • To define & agree on ecosystem boundary, map activities, and land use patterns. • To establish appropriate institutional infrastructure • To assess potential benefits from, and negative impacts of, REDD+ activities: • To assist with the identification, implementation and management of project activities by REDD+ proponents. • To assist with the promotion and funding of the REDD+ projects. Specific Objectives
Carbon Markets: What are they? Theoretical example of how carbon markets work: Factory in Europe Carbon Credit Project (e.g. from REDD initiative) The factory cannot reduce its emissions It buys 50 tCO2 per year from the forest project Sale of 50 t CO2 each year Produces: 150 tCO2 per year Reduction commitment: 100 tCO2 per year Payment for the Carbon Credits
REDD+ in Kenya and Uganda (1/2) • Kenya developed its National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) in 2010, and other policy initiatives to tackle climate change issues have since been developed. REDD+ is an important component of Kenya’s strategy. Vision 2030 also enshrines relevant environmental goals, e.g. in protecting Kenya’s “Water Towers”. • Kenya an Uganda is supported in national REDD+ strategy development from the World Bank and other donors. GoK intends to develop sub-national pilots. • The National REDD+ initiative is with the Ministry of Water and Environment in Uganda. • A number of consultations have already been carried out, lead by IUCN in this region.
Overview of Mt. Elgon REDD+ Strategy • Initiated in 2011 by MERECP, and finalized in 2012. • Mt Elgon is a critical, shared forest area and watershed for both Kenya and Uganda and it is under threat. • Strong support from both Governments, input from NGOs (e.g. IUCN), input from communities (workshops). • Discussions on the main drivers of forest cover change, existing interventions and possible new interventions. • Strategy suggested phasing, local governance structures, benefit sharing mechanisms, safeguards and next steps.
Proposed Next Steps for REDD+ in Mt Elgon Ca. 12 – 18 months April / May 2013 June LVBC-donor meeting
Expected Deliverables of the Project • Carbon credit project documentation: E.g. Project Idea Notes (PINs), Project Design Documents (PDDs), verification, validation and registration documents for issuance of carbon credits (likely Verified Carbon Units under the Verified Carbon Standard and accreditation by Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standards) • Annual reports from the institutional framework that supports the trans-boundary REDD+ program • Project events and reports, e.g. disseminated Learning Reports and presentations at various international meetings as this is a first-of-kind initiative
Total budget estimate for REDD+ strategy implementation
INTEGRATED CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION PROGRAMME IN THE LAKE VICTORIA BASIN-PCN 7 007: Project concept note Programme Overall Objective Enhance nature conservation and sustain people’s livelihoods in critical landscapes in the Lake Victoria Basin through ecosystem and community based climate change adaptation initiatives over the next five years. Specific Objectives To influence policy, legislation and institutional approaches to support climate change adaptation and mitigation To reduce loss of biodiversity and ecological footprint in critical ecosystems To promote sustainable management and utilization of water resources To enhance capacity of stakeholders/ actors and groups to alleviate impacts of climate change To promote livelihood options that lessen impacts of climate change To enhance the knowledge base of the stakeholders / actors in the basin on climate change and adaptation To integrate gender and HIVR&AIDS dimensions in the reduction of climate change impacts
Programme Strategies Undertaking protection, management and restoration activities Advocacy for public –private sector partnerships Support for policy work, CSO strengthening, fuel efficient stoves Policy interventions, Managing Climate Change Vulnerabilities ,Climate change adaptation and Promoting community based natural resource management. Education for Sustainable Development
Expected Outcomes Programme components • Improved policy, legislation and institutional approaches to climate change • Increased adaptive capacity to address the impacts of climate change • Enhanced capacity on climate change adaptation and mitigation • Reduction of forest habitat conversion to agriculture • Reduction of demand for fuel wood & charcoal from protected areas • Reduction of water pollution from farmland and other effluents • Reduction of illegal poaching, wildlife trade & human wildlife conflicts Protection, management and restoration Community, livelihoods and resilience to climate change Institutional, Legal and Policy Enhancement Capacity Building Cross cutting Issues (Gender, HIV & AIDS) Conservation Targets
Consolidated Budget • Consolidated budget of Objectives 1-6 USD 5 Million
REGIONAL WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PROJECTS OO8:Project concept notes summary • The region is among the poorest in the world with two of the countries being among the five poorest countries in the World. • dependent on rain fed agriculture, subsistence farming; low industrialization; poor infrastructure, • low levels of education attainment and skilled human resources, gender exclusion, • an average life expectancy of 50 and high population growth of 3% per annum. • The AIDS scourge, poor and inadequate education infrastructure and human capital flight worsen the situation.. • There are four main sources of environmental stresses adversely • impacting the LVB ecosystem, as well as the region’s economy and • livelihoods. • The effect of the above environmental stresses is the severe environmental degradation of the LVB ecosystem. • Increased sedimentation: • Increased pollution and euthrophication: • Wetlands destruction:. • Forest degradation:
Why IWRM Programme • LVEMP is finalising WRMP which will be based on IWRM • Inadequate IWRM capacity to implement WRMP for the various stakeholders • The project is aiming at providing IWRM capacity to key stakeholders at various level
Goal, Objectives &Project components The overall goal to which the project will contribute to is “Enhance the development and management of the LVB water resources in a sustainable manner by addressing water quality challenges through the promotion of the IWRM in the Region” The objective of the project is “To address water quality challenges in the Lake Victoria Basin through the IWRM principle. Proposed Components • To address the water quality challenges in the Lake Victoria • Promote public awareness and sensitisation campaigns on IWRM to enhance stakeholder awareness and appreciation of Integrated Transboundary Water Resources Management. • Capacity Building: • Project Management and Coordination
Expected Deliverables of the Project • Improved water quality and livelihood on the selected interventions areas and towns; • Public becomes more aware on the IWRM and sensitisation campaigns on IWRM to enhance stakeholder awareness and appreciation of Integrated Transboundary Water Resources Management conducted; and • Capacity built at all levels for Relevant Central, Local Government Agencies, NGOs and CBOs ; • Project managed and additional activities include field missions, RPSc meetings and various operational activities conducted. Consultants supervised and output delivered, LVBC field supervision report, annual audit reports, quarterly, and annual progress reports.
Mechanical Removal and Management of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria Water hyacinth Eichhorniacrassipes(Mart) Solms is a perennial plant native to tropical America. First noted in East Africa in the 1930s and in Lake Victoria in 1989- Uganda& Tanzania and in 1990 in Kenya Officially recognized a noxious invasive weed in the late 1980’s In Uganda, weed control efforts began in 1993 by involving the local communities. In 1995 Tanzania implemented an integrated noxious weed management control (bioligical, manual &, quarantine regulations and s control of nutrient influxes ) In Kenya the weed coverage was at 17,200ha by 1998 (4Njoka and Kusewa, 2006). Weed control involved biological methods using weevils and mites and a mechanical harvesting at peak infestation in 1998 mechanical removal supported by biological control and sustainable manual removal programmes are the most viable options need for strong coordination of weed control programs by the lake basin governments.
Increasing inflow of water hyacinth Pure mat of hyacinth Mat invaded by hippo grass Late stages Mat invaded by I. aquaticaand E,fluctuans
Water hyacinth succession Collapse Climax stage Objectives To mechanically remove water hyacinth from hot spot areas to manageable levels. To manage remnant populations of water hyacinth through sustainable control programmes. Debris at the lake bottom
Project Area, Approach &M&E Project Area • The main project area is Lake Victoria ie major ports and bays in each of the three East African countries. Project implementation Approach • The project will be implemented in the entire Lake Victoria and rivers focusing on areas infested by water hyacinth. • LVBC will coordinate (establishment of institutional frameworks, capacity building, implementation processes). • Implementation will involve relevant government departments, LVBC, private sector, existing local communities and other stakeholders. • Government agencies and other stakeholders will provide technical support and also oversee implementation to ensure further sustainability of project. Monitoring and Evaluation • Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) will form an integral part of the project planning and implementation process. The process will adopt the following approach; • Carry out at least one quarterly monitoring and evaluation exercise at the cluster levels • Carry out at least two monitoring and evaluation exercises per year at the national level • Prepare monitoring and evaluation reports • A midterm evaluation will be undertaken after 2½ years
Expected Deliverables of the Project • Water hyacinth menace reduced to the ecologically and socio-economically acceptable levels (80% of current water hyacinth removed). • Sustainable water hyacinth management regime established- regionally • Improved economies, environment and social life of communities within Partner States
KISAT RIVER CATCHMENT RESTORATION PROJECT (KRCRP) 010: project concept note summary INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND The total harvestable fish biomass of between 700,000MT – 1,000,000mt (Mkumbo et al, 2005) Fishery industry employs over 2 million people. inter-state trade and tourism using existing ports like Kisumu. Source of drinking water. In urban setups stream and river ecosystems are not protected by buffer zones Malfunctioning sewerage facilities Consequently this has led to sedimentation and eutrophication Carry out rehabilitation and restoration interventions in catchments One such river is the Kisat River, located within the Kisumu City. Kisat is a short river of about 4km, wholly within Kisumu City.
Objectives Rehabilitate the degraded areas within the Kisat river catchment Develop and implement an integrated solid waste management system within the catchment Reduce municipal and industrial effluent discharges into river Kisat Establish and maintain environmental flows for the Kisat river Develop and implement a Master Plan for economic utilization of riparian zone
Expected Outputs At the end of the project period, it is expected that the following outputs will have been achieved: • Reduced pollution load discharge into Lake Victoria • Improved solid and liquid waste management, sanitation facilities and therefore water quality • Well conserved riparian areas with rehabilitated riverbanks providing increase potential for recreation and sustainable economic activities • Improved access to clean fresh water for industrial and domestic use for residents of Kisumu City • Enhanced public awareness on the environment
Project Area, Design, Approach and M&E Project Area -The River Kisat Watershed, in Kisumu, Kenya. Project design- • Phase one survey and delineation of the riparian zone of the river and mapping of industries and pollution hot spots • Phase two of the project will focus on implementation of rehabilitation and restoration interventions Project implementation Approach • integrated multi-sectoral approach to ensure sustainable solutions are put in place. • multiple stakeholders from the Government, Civil society, Private Sector, development partners and communities Monitoring And Evaluation • a participatory approach and fitted into the larger LVBC framework. • LVBC will coordinate the tracking of day-to-day progress • A baseline will be generated at the start of the project period • Mid-term review and end term evaluation will also be inbuilt into the project design.
Expected Deliverables of the Project • Reduced pollution load discharge into Lake Victoria • Improved solid and liquid waste management, sanitation facilities and therefore water quality • Well conserved riparian areas with rehabilitated riverbanks providing increase potential for recreation and sustainable economic activities • Improved access to clean fresh water for industrial and domestic use for residents of Kisumu City • Enhanced public awareness on the environment
PROMOTING NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN KIBIRA – NYUNGWE TRANS-BOUNDARY ECOSYSTEMS 011: Project concept note The forestry resources component supports highly the communities ( foods, fruits, construction materials, pasture and spiritual) High forest destruction in Kibira – Nyungwe forests in Rwanda, Burundi The Rwanda 90,000 ha, BurindiRuvubu National Park (50,000ha) and the Kibira National Park (40,000ha). The quality of natural habitats, protected areas, wetlands and aquatic resources within trans- Overexploitation or invasion of other species alien to the area. Need for concerted efforts from the EAC Partner States Currently efforts are fragmented harmonization of institutions, policy, legal and systems and procedures for effective TBNRM
Shared Ecosystems in East Africa The E A is endowed with a variety of natural resources. Some of them are transboundary: Terrestrial Ecosystems Various categories: • The Mountain Forest Ecosystems • The Eastern Arc Mountains • The Dry Mountain Forest Ecosystems • The Lowland Ecosystems • The Lowland Rain Forest Ecosystems Trans-boundary Terrestrial Ecosystems Among the above category of transbounndary terrestrial Ecosystems, we find the following: • Mt. Kilimanjaro (TZ/KE)- highest Mt in Africa; • Mt. Elgon (KE/UG); • The Eastern Arc Mountain Forests (Taita and • Pare Hills in KE/TZ); • Mara-Serengeti (KE/TZ) wildebeest migration; • Kajiado – Moduli dry lands (KE/TZ); • Albertine Rift Mountains • Nyungwe- Kibira (Rw-Bu) • Volcano-Virunga Mountains-Mgahinga(DRC, Rw, Ug)
Shared Aquatic Ecosystems The Lake Victoria Basin-Africa’s largest lake (KE/UG/TZ); • Lake Tanganyika, “aquatic biodiversity hotspot”(TZ/BR/ZM/DRC) -2nd longest and 2nd deepest lake in the world found in the Albertine Rift; • Minziro-Sango Bay Swamp Forest (UG/TZ) along the shores of Lake Victoria; • Lake Malawi-TZ /Mozambique; • Lake Jipe and Chala (KE/TZ); TBE Management challenges • un-harmonized immigration procedures; and lack of ecosystem approach competence and capacity for (TBNRM). • joint management and joint monitoring and protection within the wildlife, forest, water and wetland Acts of the respective countries; • differential application of user rights and responsibilities of stakeholders (e.g. local communities); • no formal provision for intelligence information sharing by the protected areas institutions; • High dependence by adjacent communities (proximity of the protected areas posing- fire, poaching, encroachment ); • inadequate institutional arrangements/structures,. • The lack of formal institutional collaboration arrangements between two or more countries in the (human, infrastructure, funds, procedures, policies, and knowledge)
Objectives • Promote trans-boundary conservation, natural resources and participatory benefit sharing and co-management models of ecosystem and biodiversity conservation and management around protected areas; • Create opportunities for payment of ecosystem goods and services for improved livelihoods through equity and benefit sharing models/revolving funds; • Link livelihood improvement to climate change mitigation and adaptation in trans-boundary ecosystems; • Strengthen appropriate institutions in support of cooperation and collaboration in the management of trans-boundary ecosystems.
Expected Deliverables of the Project • Mechanisms to promote, support and sustain trans-boundary collaboration established; • Capacity of implementing institutions build towards effective and participatory conservation of Nyungwe- Kibira ecosystem; • Communities empowered to participate in equitable resource governance
Development of state of the Lake Basin report O12: project concept note summary
Project Goal ,Objective &Output Goal _ to develop the State of the Lake Victoria basin report. specific objectives : • Assess the environmental profile of the Lake Victoria basin, including the Lake Victoria and its basin including a description of the global environment (different ecosystems), plus environmental governance in the Lake Victoria basin; • Assess the water resources of the Lake Victoria basin including analysis of the Lake Victoria and its basin water resources, quantity and quality, surface and ground water, hydrology and climatology; • Assess the socio-economic status of the Lake Victoria basin including poverty analysis, a demography analysis, urbanization, employment, people’s health, youth and economic growth; • Assess the water uses in the Lake Victoria basin; and • Elaborate a scenario analysis – this includes a synthesis of the emerging issues presented before and their trends.
Deliverables • Status of physical chemical and biological characteristics of the Lake; • Information on the status of human health and toxins • Status of natural resources, biodiversity and aquatic invasive species of the Lake and its basin. • The socio-economic status of the Lake and its catchment. • Climate change and hydrology of Lake Victoria and the basin • Emerging issues on Lake Victoria and the basin; • Opportunities and challenges with respect to the sustainable management and development of the Basin; • Critical role that cooperation among stakeholders can play in optimizing the benefits and bringing about equitable utilization of LVB common resources; • Indicators for monitoring the health of LVB