300 likes | 491 Views
The science of the innovation processes: an integrated and evolutionary discipline for the education of the XXI century’s Engineers. Dr. Laure MOREL, Professor Dr. Mauricio Camargo, Associate-Professor. Réseau Cartagène d’ingénierie-RCI 21 septembre 2010 Metz. INTRODUCTION.
E N D
The science of the innovation processes: an integrated and evolutionary discipline for the education of the XXI century’s Engineers Dr. Laure MOREL, Professor Dr. Mauricio Camargo, Associate-Professor Réseau Cartagène d’ingénierie-RCI 21 septembre 2010 Metz
INTRODUCTION Increasing perception of complexity - Environmental changes - Difficulties in approaching industrial problems - Management of Innovation have evolve due to : - industry needs - customers needs • « what innovation means ? » • impact on a training program of an Engineering school
INTRODUCTION • Innovation is a fashionable concept : • * product : to better satisfy needs or to create new ones • * process or organisation : to reduce delay, cost • to improve quality and productivity • Different communities so different models and representations • * lack of understanding or a misunderstanding • * a huge amount of definition about “what innovation is “
INTRODUCTION • For example : • one consider innovation as a “smooth, well-behaved linear process “ [Rosenberg & al, 86] Idea Development Production Marketing From research activities • one consider innovation as a cognitive process based on new way of reasoning and acting in an individual or collective or organisational point of view • [March & Simon 74], [Callon 94], [Alter 95], [Boucher & al 95]
INTRODUCTION • one consider innovation as a systemic process allowing adjustments between the industrial system and its environments The chain-linked model [Kline & Rosenberg 86]
INTRODUCTION OBSERVATION : an agreement has emerged to consider innovation as a process Innovation and complexity are linked New paradigms and new way of acting are needed to face current industrial challenges
To conceive its existence Knowledge is a project continuously constructed PARADIGMS EMERGING AND CHALLENGES Paradigm of Complexity Constructivist Paradigm No permanent and only one explanation of the reality To apprehend To change our representations of the reality and our way of acting Knowledge emerges from the interaction between a system and its environment To integrate To create value by the quality of the interactions and by the search of a sense given to our action To take advantage of Innovation as a value -creating process Scientific framework of an Integrated Approach to Innovation Systemic logic Learning and action logic
Integration of various point of view and of the persons Study of the links and the interactions Knowledge is not given To think in our practical To develop particular model of action for each situation Learning and action logic Systemic logic PARADIGMS EMERGING AND CHALLENGES Paradigm of Complexity Constructivist Paradigm Innovation as a value -creating process Scientific framework of an Integrated Approach to Innovation
TOWARD AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO INNOVATION technical dimension organizational dimension Control of the Creation of value (financial, culture, apprenticeship, common sense…) performance behavioral dimension cognitive dimension Innovation as a process Innovation as the search of a result PARADOX
THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL • Research • paradigms emergence • Customers • demand industry • Product • engineers « How to do the link »
THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL • 2 QUESTIONS : • - How do we train people in order to respond to the • industry need ? • - what kind of pedagogical methods must be develop to • approach complex reality ? Postulate : to develop a cross cultural attitude
THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL • 2 MAIN AXES : • - Facilitating access to reasoning where creativity and flexibility have pride of place • - Encouraging observation, common sense, curiosity , interest for the physical and social world and the willingness to experiment
THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL • 3 PROPOSALS : • - a learning approach combining project and practical experience • - a multi episodic apprenticeship in order to favor the transfer of methodology and methods within the courses • - the setting up of managerial/entrepreneurial development and personal development supervision
Self-learning of languages Self-learning and educational information & communication technologies Methodological support Coaching Communication Controlling fear Philosophy Assessing Potential through Simulation Industrial projects Analysis of practices Qualitative monitoring Life of associations Self-learning Learning through action Engineering Sciences Management Sciences Human Sciences Personal development THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL H1: The innovation dynamic is closely linked to the innovative behaviors developed by individuals (Schumpeter, 1965), (Morel, 1998) , (Diedhiou, 2003), (Bary, 2002), (Batjargal, 2007), (Schwartz & Malach-Pines, 2007). H2: The innovation culture requires educational engineering which promotes "practical understanding « (Schön, 1983), (Camargo & al, 2009) Figure: Innovation training: Educational structure of the GSI Engineering school
THE IMPLICATION ON TRAINING IN AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL • 3 REMARKS : • - our pedagogy is based upon an ever-increasing autonomy of the learners • - teachers gradually turn into an external resource and a help to turn intelligence of knowledge into intelligence of action • - our training should no longer give pride place to order and stability : instability is becoming the driving force of knowledge
AN EXAMPLE A SPECIFIC CONTEXT : THE COMPETITIVENESS CLUSTERS On July 2005, the French government has decided to grant an official label and to support 66 competitiveness clusters. These competitiveness clusters concern emerging technological sectors such as nanotechnologies, biotechnologies or microelectronics, but also the more traditional industrial sectors. What exactly is a competitiveness cluster and what advantages ? The aim of a competitiveness cluster is to concentrate at the same location, the talent incorporated within public and private research units, teaching facilities and the expertise of business enterprises, in order to establish working relationships which develop a cooperation environment and promote partnerships within innovative projects. Universities and enterprises are mobilized, within a public/private partnership to work on new projects.
Lorraine - Materalia « Innovative materials and intelligent products » A SPECIFIC CONTEXT : THE COMPETITIVENESS CLUSTERS Transport, Biotechnology and Healthcare, IT, images and network, Bio-Agronomics, Chemicals
TRANSFER AND INNOVATION WORKSHOPS – TIW A SPECIFIC CONTEXT : THE COMPETITIVENESS CLUSTERS There are 4 key elements for a successful regional cluster: - a common development strategy - strong partnerships between the various players - concentration on highly marketable technologies - international visibility
THE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUNG OF THE TIW PROJECT The School/Enterprise platform project (Morel & Guidat, 2005) Knowledge I nnovation Management Engineering PRODUCT and Innovation CRE@CTION TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM INCUBATEUR New product development tools box Innovation and creativity tools box 8 months Engineers mission SKILLS TRANSFER PROJE CT WORKSHOPS TIW project Learning and Innovation
0BJECTIVES OF THE TIW PROJECT Improving Innovation By Developing Exchanges Between Universities, SMEs, and the Region Objectives of the TWI project: to assist SMEs in Lorraine in their innovation dynamic and to contribute to a “learning by doing” pedagogy. To assist SMEs in Lorraine The TIW are designed to gradually integrate SMEs in the knowledge economy by developing their practices of collaboration and networking in order to boost their NPD process. A “learning by doing” pedagogy A project of modernization or innovation in SMEs is a project that can be tackled in all its dimensions (technical, economical, managerial) on a time compatible with the teaching time (2 semesters) and the industrial constraints. It requires a multidisciplinary and multi-actors confrontation. This favor a learning by doing attitude of the students. Furthermore, the multidisciplinary nature of these projects will be a great opportunity to mix skills becoming from different backgrounds: engineering, management and industry.
SEMESTER 1 (September to January) Vendredi am Common courses MIPI workshops Tous les étudiants (et industriels) concernés par les Ateliers de Transfert Thématique MIPI suivent ces formations 8 x Vendredi am : 3 x 4 h Pratique de Gestion de Projet 3 x 4 h Pratique de Gestion de l’Innovation 2 x 4 h Interventions Professionnelles Gestion de Projet School A 2 AP School B 2 AP AP1 AP 1 School C AP 2 AP1 AP 3 School D AP 3 IND X IND Y 3 AP Vendredi pm Atelier Projet 1 (AP1) pour Industriel X 1 Atelier Projet Finalisé = 1 sujet industriel + 1 Manager Industriel + 1 groupe d’étudiants (3 à 4 étudiants x 2 écoles) + 1 équipe de Managers Ecole (1 enseignant / chercheur par école) Vendredi pm Atelier Projet 2 (AP2) sans Industriel (incubateur) 1 Atelier Incubateur Projet = 1 secteur industriel + 1 groupe d’étudiants (3 à 4 étudiants x 2 écoles) + 1 équipe de Managers Ecole (1 enseignant / chercheur par école) Vendredi pm Atelier Projet 3 (AP3) pour Industriel Y Par Atelier Projet : Organisation du projet, répartition des tâches, analyse de tendances multi-points de vue, recherche d’informations, … Réunions de travail entre acteurs d’une même école et/ou des différentes écoles concernées avec (ou sans) acteur industriel. ? ? ? Un des vendredi après-midi (décembre) sera réservé à une présentation intermédiaire de l’avancement des travaux de chaque Atelier Projet. THE TIW PROJECT STRUCTURE Basics on management of innovative projects and Project Organization Application of the courses on the problematic
SEMESTRE 2 (January to June) Vendredi am and pm Ressources « fixes » et « en réserve » d’Experts (Enseignants, Chercheurs, Industriels, Institutionnels, …) Atelier Projet avec Industriel School A Atelier Projet sans Industriel (incubateur) School B School C School D Industrial X ? Industrial Y, … ? Ressources Technologiques Evaluation : Report and oral presentation THE TIW PROJECT STRUCTURE Operational implementation of the project Materalia cluster 5000 euros budget
Results : 52 ideas THE FOUR CONCEPTS • « SERICA Carbone » • Ecological charter • Ecological message PSA • « Emball’utile » EXAMPLES OF TIW PROJECTS
EXAMPLES OF TIW PROJECTS • Evolution of the current products • product design • Usability test • But also…. • A Roadmaping of the technology strategy
EXAMPLES OF TIW PROJECTS Dechaume MoncharmonJulien Dunand Nicolas Guironnet de Massas Mélodie Hay Amandine Laporte Grégoire Marin Edwige Nibourel Adrien Rousset Marc turnover of 13 million € 125 employees Manager: M.Moret
CONCLUSION • The TIW project is a tool for igniting, accelerating and facilitating innovation through: • A better identification and formalization of an industrial problematic of technological development • A more efficient piloting of the project thanks to the access to competencies and tools that SMEs don’t basically get • Adapted training sessions for the SMEs employees or managers regarding their project • A progressive integration of the SMEs to the local scientific and technology environment regarding the project needs • A concrete use of all the methods favoring a collaborative work • A free access for the SMEs to the Cré@ctiontechnological platform and different kind of resources (training, researches, transfer) In 2006, 3 PMEs and 2 schools was engaged in the TIW project. In 2009, it represents 20 PMEs and 12 schools.
CONCLUSION For the training of the XXI century’s Engineers we need an Integrated Approach to Innovation. That’s mean for a pedagogical structure : • - an opening up toward a culture of relationships and interdisciplinary • - a new perception of complex environment : constraint to creation of value • - a double process of adaptation and of professional ability to improve autonomy
CONCLUSION “What’s important in engineering education? Making universities and engineering schools exciting, creative, adventurous, rigorous, demanding and empowering environments is more important than specifying curricular detail.” Charles Vest President, National Academy of Engineering USA President Emeritus, MIT