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Senior Design: Diesel Soot Filter Measurement. Cummins 1 : Tedrick Rollings Jonathan Whitaker Partius Robinson Michael Erhardt. Agenda. 1. Problem Description. 2. Project Outline/Progress Diagram. 3. Industry Solution. 4. Research Project. 5. Conclusion. Problem Description.

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senior design diesel soot filter measurement

Senior Design:Diesel Soot Filter Measurement

Cummins 1:

Tedrick Rollings

Jonathan Whitaker

Partius Robinson

Michael Erhardt

agenda
Agenda

1. Problem Description

2. Project Outline/Progress Diagram

3. Industry Solution

4. Research Project

5. Conclusion

problem description
Problem Description
  • We are required to design a sensor or a similar system capable of measuring the amount of soot in a diesel soot filter. The sensor has to be able to operate with a soot filter with the following specifications:
    • 8 mm wall thickness
    • 200 cells per unit inch
    • manufactured with cordierite
    • Accuracy = +/- 0.5 g of soot per liter of filter.
project outline
Project Outline
  • Industry Solutions
    • Horiba-Engine Measurements
      • Correspondence
      • Executive Summary + Proposal Report
    • Argonne National Laboratory
      • Correspondence
      • Executive Summary + Proposal Report
    • NGK Insulators
      • Correspondence
      • Executive Summary + Proposal Report
  • Research Proposal/Solution
    • Filter Heat-Soot Correlation Method
      • Overall Concept
      • Thermodynamic Modeling
      • Test Setup
      • Desired Results
      • Advanced Temperature Measurement Research
progression diagram
Progression Diagram

Phase 2

Phase 1

Phase 3

  • Long term project research
  • Thermodynamic formulization
  • Segmented filter calculations
  • Industry interaction
  • and research
  • Combination of the two ideals
  • Finalization of project
  • Short term project research
  • Collection of ideas
industry solutions
Industry Solutions

Cummins Diesel Engine Measurement

Project

Horiba

Engine

Measurements

Argonne

National

Labs

NGK

Insulators

horiba engine measurements
Horiba -Engine Measurements

Vaporization and oxidation/deoxidation technique

  • Filter is placed analyzer's furnace and heated in N2 gas flow.
  • SOF and sulfate vaporized by heat in N2 atmosphere
  • Vaporized sulfate is deoxidized to SO2 by heat, measured by SO2 detector.
  • Organic components oxidized by O2 , measured as CO2 by NDIR detector.
  • Output of CO2 detector is integrated while O2 is flowing to determine soot mass.
horiba engine measurements9
Horiba -Engine Measurements

Mexa-1370 PM

Measures soot, sulfate, and total particulate matter in diluted engine exhaust gas

  • Complications
  • Multiple Part Analysis
  • Size Issues (2.3 x 1.8 x 2.7 ft)
  • 4 Minute Analysis

1370 Analyzer and Data Processor

argonne national laboratory
Argonne National Laboratory

Real-Time Portable Exhaust Analyzer

  • Laser-Induced Incandescence
  • Can measure
    • Mean size of the particles
    • Number of particles per cubic centimeter
  • Correlate Exhaust Particle Size/Number and Filter Fullness
argonne trans tech r d
Argonne – Trans. Tech R&D
  • Thermophoretic sampling to study diesel PM.
  • High-Res transmission electron microscope (TEM)
    • Data recording
    • Analysis.
  • Better understand PM
    • Density
    • Weight
    • Specific heat capacity

TEM Clip of Diesel Particulate Matter

ngk insulators ltd
NGK Insulators, Ltd
  • Pressure Drop of
  • Segmented Diesel
  • Particulate Filter
  • Uses the flow resistance of a segmented Diesel particulate filter.
segmented filter
Segmented Filter

Given identical monolithic and segmented filters:

  • Segmented:
    • Holds lower filtration wall area
    • Reduces the filter open frontal area
  • Resulting in:
    • Higher flow resistance
    • Increase in the filter pressure

drop

  • 15% Reduction in Filtration Area

= 400 Pa Pressure Drop

research project proposal
Research Project/Proposal

Cummins

Cummins

Cummins

Filter Heat-Soot

Correlation Method

Cummins

Cummins

conceptual designs

Exhaust

Vehicle Stack

Ammeter

(Measures

Current)

Wiring

Cordierite

Filter

Constant

Applied

Voltage

Power Supply

(Supplies Voltage)

Particulates (Soot)

Conceptual Designs
  • Concept #1: Force Measuring System
  • Idea #2: Continuous Dilution Method
  • Idea #3: Temperature Monitoring
  • Idea #4: Particulate Measurement through Electrical Current Analysis
  • Idea #5: Incandescence Soot Measurement
decision matrix

FACTORS (1 - 5)

Production

Idea

Mass

Specific

Cost

Time

Complexity

Production

Factors

Concept #

TOTAL

1

3

4

3

4

3

17

2

1

2

3

4

2

12

3

5

4

5

4

3

21

4

3

3

4

3

4

17

5

1

3

2

3

4

13

Decision Matrix
  • Decision Matrix
    • Factor quantifying system:
      • 1 – Very Poor 2 – Poor 3 – Average 4 – Good 5 – Excellent
    • Largest Total: Most reasonable idea
    • “Filter Heat-Soot Correlation Method” was selected to be the most possible idea using the decision matrix.
filter heat soot correlation method
Filter Heat-Soot Correlation Method
  • Thermodynamic Background
    • Thermal Exchanger System
    • Thermal Conductivity
  • Thermodynamic Project Application
    • Specific Heat Capacity
    • ***Special Thanks to Dr. Chiang Shih and Dr. Juan Ordonez
thermodynamic model
Thermodynamic Model
  • Simplified gradual representation of diesel particulate filter system
experimental research setup
Experimental Research Setup
  • Preliminary Experiment
    • Specific Heat Capacity of Diesel Soot
    • Specific Heat Capacity of Diesel Particulate Filter
  • Main Experiment
    • Simulated Exhaust System
experimental research procedure
Experimental Research Procedure
  • Assemble Test Equipment
  • Assemble Temperature Monitoring Equipment
  • Prepare Mass Measurement Equipment
  • Phase I Experimental Procedure
  • Phase II Experimental Procedure
challenges faced
Challenges Faced
  • Extraneous Factors
    • Pressure
    • Geometry
    • Altered Density
    • Non-Constant Mass
  • Long Term Temperature Measurement
    • K-Thermocouple Failure
long term solution temperature measuring devices
Long Term Solution:Temperature Measuring Devices
  • Type K thermocouples
  • Composed of a positive Chromel wire and a negative Alumel wire.
  • Most popular thermocouple
  • Wide measurement range
  • Good temp. precision.
long term temp cont stabilized type k thermocouples
Long Term Temp. Cont.Stabilized Type K Thermocouples
  • Controls drift for more stabilized temperature readings for extended periods of time.
  • Can survive temperature readings of -145 to 2500°F.
  • Not just heat treated, but reinforced by heat resistance material that locks in the heat calibration.

Type K Wire Thermocouple

problems encountered solutions

Initial

Calculation

Difficulty

Initial

Sponsor

Discontent

Temp.

Measuring

Device

Lack of

Industry

Response

Problems Encountered & Solutions
  • Revised Plan
  • of Action
  • New Division
  • of Labor
  • More “realistic” goal
  • setting
  • Persistence
  • More Persistence
  • Research
  • and discovery
  • of Type K
  • Thermocouples
  • In-Depth
  • Research
  • Collaboration
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Cummins and other industry leaders aremaking progress towards a viable solution

2. The research project/proposal is a

viable solution to the problem at hand.

3. Goals were achieved…

questions
Questions?

Jonathan

Whitaker

Michael

Erhardt

Cummins

Patrius

Robinson

Tedrick

Rollings