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Preliminary Investigations of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes for use in HEP Detectors. David Warner, Robert J. Wilson Department of Physics Colorado State University. Outline. Motivation Avalanche Photodiodes Characteristics R&D Plans Conclusions. Motivation.

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Preliminary Investigations of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes for use in HEP Detectors


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preliminary investigations of geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for use in hep detectors

Preliminary Investigations of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes for use in HEP Detectors

David Warner, Robert J. Wilson

Department of Physics

Colorado State University

ALCPG, UT-Arlington

January 10th 2003

outline
Outline
  • Motivation
  • Avalanche Photodiodes
  • Characteristics
  • R&D Plans
  • Conclusions

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

motivation
Motivation
  • Scintillating fiber, or WLS readout of scintillator strips basic component of several existing detectors (MINOS, CMS-HCAL)
  • Standard photodetector – photomultiplier tubes, great devices but…
    • “Expensive” (including electronics etc.),
    • Bulky, magnetic field sensitive…
  • For the next generation would like a photon detector to be:
    • Cheaper
    • Compact? Low mass? Magnetic field insensitive? Radiation hard?
  • Future experiments
    • BaBar upgrade - endcap?
    • Future e+e- Linear Collider?LHC?
    • Nuclear physics? Space-based (NASA)?

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

silicon avalanche photodiodes apd
Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (APD)
  • Solid state detector with internal gain.
  • Avalanche multiplication
    • initiated by electron-hole free carriers, thermally or optically generated within the APD
    • accelerated in the high electric field at the APD junction.
  • Proportional Mode
    • bias voltage below the breakdown voltage, low gain
    • avalanche photocurrent is proportional to the photon flux and the gain
  • Geiger Mode
    • bias voltage higher than the breakdown voltage, gain up to 108 from single carrier
    • avalanche triggered either by single photon generated carriers or thermally generated carriers
    • signal is not proportional to the incident photon flux.
    • high detection efficiency of single carriers  single photon counter
    • to quench Geiger mode avalanche bias has to be decreased below the breakdown voltage

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

uv enhanced avalanche photodiodes
UV Enhanced Avalanche Photodiodes
  • Development by Stefan Vasile et al, Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. (Now at aPeak, Newton, Mass.)
  • Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award motivated by an imaging Cerenkov device application (focusing DIRC). c. 1996/97-98
  • Design and fabrication of silicon micro-APD (mAPD) pixels
    • 20-180 µm pixels, single photon sensitivity in the 200-600 nm wavelength range.
    • Q.E.= 59% at 254 nm (arsenic doping, thermal annealing)
    • very high gain > 108
    • Geiger mode APD array with integrated readout designed but process/funding problems.

blue-infrared

UV-blue

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

geiger avalanche characteristics
Geiger Avalanche Characteristics
  • Thermal carriers trigger avalanche
    • dark count rate decreased using small APD space charge region generation volume
  • Compatible with 5 volt logic
    • strong noise rate dependence
  • Temperature dependence

 factor 3 decrease for 25°C to 0°C

 factor 20 decrease for 25°C to -25°C

  • Size dependence
    • roughly linear with effective avalanche region area
    • at room temp. predict few kHz for 100 mm,  100 kHz for 500 mm
  • Characteristics measured on a small number of samples

20 mm diameter pixel,

room temp.

RMD Inc.

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

photon detection efficiency
Photon Detection Efficiency

RMD Inc.

RMD Inc.

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

prototype m apd array
Prototype mAPD Array

RMD Inc.

  • APD active area is 150 mm x 150 mm on 300 mm pitch
  • Compatible with CMOS process  potential for low cost large-scale production
  • 70% photon collection efficiency with fused silica micro-mirrors (for f-DIRC)
  • Fabrication attempt failed 1998/99. RMD claims to have solved the problems but no funds for a fabrication run.

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

minos scintillation system
MINOS Scintillation System
  • Uses a large volume of cheap co-extruded scintillator bars (8m x 4cm x 1cm) with a single 1.2mmØ Y11-175 multiclad WLS fiber epoxied in extruded groove
  • WLS fiber is coupled to a long clear fiber and readout with a pixelated pmt
  • ~3-4 pe/fiber at ~3.7 m including connections and pmt QE
  • Several production facilities still operational

Source: BaBar IFR Upgrade Status Report III

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

babar modifications slac caltech
BaBar Modifications (SLAC/CalTech)
  • Short (3.7m vrs 8m) version of MINOS system with Time to the get the second coordinate
  • Replace the pmt with (low gain) APD : 4X higher QE
  • Increase number of fibers to 4 : ~2X more light
  • Increase scintillator thickness to ~2cm : ~1.5X more light
  • Project ~ 50-60 pe at 3.7m for min. ion.

Source: BaBar IFR Upgrade Status Report III

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

csu slac commissioned r d at apeak
CSU+SLAC Commissioned R&D at aPeak
  • P.o. placed December 2002
  • 3.1. Package GPD pixels
    • Wire bonding;
    • Breadboard passive quenching circuitry and GPD pixels.
  • 3.2. Reliability evaluation
    • Bias several pixels at 1.1V above breakdown for 1,000 hours, document changes in dark count rate, and failure modes, if any.
  • 3.3. GPD performance evaluation
    • dark count rate vs. T–40 to 30 °C
    • recovery time vs. pixel area: determine if one microsecond recovery time can be achieved with passive quenching
    • Gain vs. Temp. and bias Voltage
    • Detection Efficiency @ Room Temp.
  • 3.4. Optical interface fabrication and assembly
    • Fab. and evaluate 4x1 beam couplers using GRIN and/or tapered fibers
  • 3.5. Test GPD in Cosmic Ray Setup

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

slide13

50 mm diameter GPD layout

Proprietary. Do not distribute.

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

recovery time with passive quenching
Recovery Time with Passive Quenching.

1 x 10 mm GPD

10 ms

475 mV

  • Simple electronics -limiting resistor
  • 10 ms quench time

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

recovery time active quenching
Recovery Time - Active Quenching

1 ms

Design 1:

2.75 V

0.5 ms

Design 2:

325 mV

Trade off pulse amplitude with pulse width (quench the avalanche sooner)

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

active quenching new design
Active Quenching - New Design

Design 3:

100 ns

Preliminary

1.2 V

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

temperature dependence
Temperature Dependence

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

slide18

0.30

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

12

12.2

12.4

12.6

12.8

13

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Bias Voltage, Vr (V)

Dark Count Rate (Hz)

T (°C)

Detection Efficiency

  • 10 mm f gAPD
  • 550 nm, 150 ns laser, 10 kHz
  • Avg. ~7 photons/pulse
  • DE = (Illuminated Rate - Dark Rate)/10 kHz

DE

-43

Preliminary

-43

-32

-30

-24

Preliminary

-20

-20

-13

2

2

9

23

23

T (°C)

Nominal operating voltage

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

optical coupling to small diameter pixels

A

a

Optical coupling to small diameter pixels
  • Couple 4 x 1.2 mm WLS fibers to 4 x 1mm glass fibers
  • Draw 4 glass fiber into single fiber, various exit diameters
  • Investigate light transmission efficiency

D

d

Concentration Factor, CF =

Area of input aperture (A) / Area of photodetector (a)

Coupler Transmission Factor, TF =

Intensity at input aperture / Intensity at output aperture

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

optical couplers area reduction
Optical couplers – area reduction

Transmission Factor

ratio of areas

Concentration Factor, CF

Concentration Factor, CF

  • Benefit from tapered fibers compared to ratio of areas is not dramatic  50-200%
  • Preliminary measurements at aPeak are in general agreement with the model
  • We expect to get samples at CSU soon

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

test setup at csu
Test Setup at CSU

Portable dark box

  • Cosmics rays
  • Calibrated with well-understood PMT at CSU
  • Measure efficiency with gAPD+couplers

Initial Tests

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

gapd progress summary
gAPD Progress Summary
  • SLAC+CSU initiated a p.o. to jumpstart further gAPD work at aPeak.
  • New design from aPeak claims to be a more reliable process than the old one.
  • Detection efficiency in 10 micron pixels 15% at room temp.,  25% at –40°C (~kHz dark count rate).
  • Only modest dark count reduction with lower temperature; expected to be better in next batch.
  • Active quenching circuitry provides 1ms-0.1ms pulse widths, no additional deadtime.
  • Successful fabrication of 4x1 tapered couplers – complexity trade-off unclear.
  • 50 mm diameter gAPDs breakdown; occurs predominantly at the surface. Due to suspected design sensitivity to humidity.
  • New run, with better control of the surface breakdown is being fabricated. Added backup design to layout. Larger, 150 mm devices by early February, 2003.

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

motivation for geiger mode apds recap
Motivation for Geiger-mode APDs - Recap
  • High gain (~109), > 1 volt pulses
    • Minimizes required electronics
  • Good detection efficiency in WLS range (>20%? At 550 nm)
    • Efficient for low light output from WLS fibers
  • Low supply voltage requirements (~10-40V)
    • Simplifies wiring harness
  • Minimal cooling requirements
    • Simplifies mechanical plant
  • CMOS process
    • “simple”
    • on-chip integration of readout -> cost-savings

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University

next steps
Next Steps
  • Many unanswered questions. Need to get the devices in our own lab!
  • Assisting aPeak with SBIR proposal.
  • CSU proposal to DoE Advanced Detector R&D.
  • Hope to provide a real HEP demonstration of utility for broad range of fiber applications.

R.J.Wilson, Colorado State University