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History of Cognitive Neuroscience. Neolithic Neurology (i.e. trephination) Estimated 65% survival rate from Stanley Finger, neurologist One archeological site in France with 120 skulls had 40 with holes. Fundamental Circularity of Being.

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history of cognitive neuroscience

History of Cognitive Neuroscience

Neolithic Neurology

(i.e. trephination)

Estimated 65% survival rate from Stanley Finger, neurologist

One archeological site in France with 120 skulls had 40 with holes

fundamental circularity of being
Fundamental Circularity of Being

“The world is inseparable from the subject, but from a

subject which is nothing but a projection of the world,

and the subject is inseparable from the world, but from

a world which the subject itself projects.”

Merleau-Ponty (1906-1961)


Goal of Cognitive Neuroscience is to provide and

explain the correspondence between

brain and mind

structure and function

Does brain=mind

or some other relationship?

ancient views of the mind
Ancient views of the mind

Cerebrocentric Cardiocentric

Plato, Hippocrates Aristotle


Andreas Vesalius


De Humani Corporis

Fabrica (The Fabric of

The Human Body) – 1543

Studied anatomy solely

for structure

Some error in

brain convolutions


Rene Descartes


De Homine – 1662

Mechanistic view of brain

Pineal gland – gateway to soul


Luigi Galvani


Professor of Obstetrics

Moves frog leg with static electricity

Detects electricity in the nerves of


cerebral localization gall
Cerebral Localization: Gall

Franz Gall (1781) pioneer

  • noted aphasia-frontal lesion link
  • Phrenology: Analysis of the shapes and lumps of the skull would reveal a person’s personality and intellect.
  • Identified 27 basic faculties like imitation, spirituality

Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)

cerebral holism diffuse representation
Cerebral Holism (Diffuse representation)
  • Pierre Flourens (1824) set up lab to attack Gall’s mind-brain equivalence.
  • He demonstrated that main divisions of brain were responsible for largely different functions.
  • By removing cerebrum, all perceptions, motor function, and judgment were abolished.
  • Removal of cerebellum affected equilibrium and motor coordination.
  • Destruction of brain stem caused death.
  • Extensive cortical lesions in birds and rabbits showed little behavioral change, which led him to believe that these functions are represented diffusely around the brain.
swing back to localization
Swing back to Localization
  • Bouillaud (1825): large series of speech loss with frontal lesions
  • Marc Dax (1836): LH damage, right hemiplegia, & aphasia linked
  • Paul Broca (1861) convincing evidence of speech laterality; Tan

Paul Broca


Anthropologist and anatomist

Paris educated MD pathologist

“Tan” aphasic patient died in

April 1861

“Nous parlons avez l’hemisphere


swing back to localization18
Swing back to Localization

Carl Wernicke (1874): temporal lesion disturbs comprehension. Developed connectionism model of language and predicated conduction aphasia

back to holism
Back to Holism

John Hughlings Jackson

CNS ~hierarchies,

highly interactive


Korbinian Brodmann


Established the basis for comparative

cytoarchitectonics of the mammalian


back to localization
Back to Localization

Brodmann (1905) 52 cytoarchitectonic brain areas

Experimental Neurology: Patient H.M. and callosotomy


Camillo Golgi


Golgi’s silver chromate stain shows dendrites, soma, and axons


Santiago Ramon y Cajal


Father of Modern Neuroscience

birth of cognitive neuroscience
Birth of Cognitive Neuroscience

Cognitive Psychology

strengths:cognitive components (versus abilities like speech)


strengths: normal brains, spatial resolution


strengths:mechanisms, causation


History of