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Intro Society’s Structure Nobility England vs. French The “Masses” Mortality Rates Family Women’s Lives Peasant Life Pugachev Rebellion Urban Workers & Guilds Fun/Entertainment. Key Terms Bourgeoisie Family Economy Cottage Industry Dowry Corv ée Emelian Pugachev Apprentice

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daily life 1600 1800
Intro

Society’s Structure

Nobility

England vs. French

The “Masses”

Mortality Rates

Family

Women’s Lives

Peasant Life

Pugachev Rebellion

Urban Workers & Guilds

Fun/Entertainment

Key Terms

Bourgeoisie

Family Economy

Cottage Industry

Dowry

Corvée

Emelian Pugachev

Apprentice

Journeyman

Master

Daily Life (1600-1800)
bourgeoisie
Bourgeoisie
  • General term for “middle class” (primarily in France)
  • Included shopkeepers, skilled workers, business owners, bankers, etc.
slide3

Nobles/Lords: 1-5%

Clergy: 5-10%

Bourgeoisie: 5-10%

The “Masses” 75-85%

nobility in england france
England

About 400 families (House of Lords)

Passed all laws

France

Nobles of Sword (served the king); Nobles of Robe (purchased a title)

Nobles did not pay taxes!

Nobility in England & France
slide5
Bolshoi Ballet started as a dance school in 1700s
  • Theater opened in 1800s

Bolshoi Theater, Moscow

the nobility fun
The Nobility & Fun
  • Gambling, adultery, hunting, tennis, opera, ballet, dances & elaborate dinner parties, salons, etc.
  • Food: Breads and wine/hard liquor & coffee; greater amounts of food were available & exotic spices
french nobility dress manners
French Nobility(Dress & Manners)

Men wore wigs; 1,200 shops

Culottes (Knee breeches)

The diameter of some dresses was nine feet across

the masses mortality rates
The Masses: Mortality Rates
  • Average life expectancy: 15-20 years shorter for the “Masses” than nobility (Hôtel Dieu)
  • Disease & Accidents = biggest killers
  • Diet was monotonous & not balanced:
    • Staples-Black bread & beer
    • For most, very little meat or fresh vegetables

Hospital For The Poor

family life
Family Life
  • Men/Fathers: Plowing, planting, running a shop; also became migrant workers
  • Women/Mothers:“Carriers,” childrearing/ raising, “Deputy Husbands; earned extra $$$
  • Children: Laborers (age seven)
    • 25% of infants died before age one; 55% before age ten
  • Servants:Laborers, but weren’t slaves

Peasant Family in France

cottage industry
Cottage Industry
  • Spinning Wheel
  • Women set their own pace & made extra money
girl with a pearl earring
Girl With A Pearl Earring
  • She worked as a servant to help earn money for her family
  • Others might work to earn money for a dowry

Griet

women
Dowry

Childbirth & Abandonment; many women worked as “wet nurses” or prostitutes (40-60,000 in Paris)

“Rule of Thumb”

It was legal to beat one’s wife with a stick as long as the stick was no thicker than the husband’s thumb

Women
  • Wealth given by a bride to her husband upon marriage
  • Women often worked 10 years to build their dowry
peasant life
Peasant Life
  • About 75% of Europe’s population lived as peasants/serfs.
  • Peasants “rented” land from Nobles.
  • Peasants could be bought, sold & traded.
tax system in france
Nobles & Clergy-did not pay taxes; Peasants & Bourgeoisie paid taxesTax System In France
  • Those with the least wealth paid the most in taxes
  • Corvée: Peasants worked 12-15 days of unpaid labor per year for the state (roads, bridges, etc)
pugachev rebellion 1773 1774
Pugachev Rebellion(1773-1774)
  • A former soldier who led a mass rebellion attacking serfdom & monarchy of Catherine the Great.
  • Controlled a large area in eastern Russia including Kazan.
  • He was captured, tortured and executed; ending the rebellion.

Emelian Pugachev

(c. 1742-1775)

guild system early industry
Guild System(Early industry)
  • Master- Shop-owner (if they had enough money & connections).
  • Journeyman- After completing seven year apprenticeship they could receive “Journeyman Papers.” Received wage plus room & board.
  • Apprentice-worked for room & board only (seven year term), but with a hope of advancement.
  • Unskilled Laborer-received room & board with little or no hope of advancement.
slide17

Master

Journeymen

Apprentice

Unskilled Laborers

the masses fun taverns
“The Masses” & FunTaverns

In London, the average male consumed 100 gallons of beer or ale per year (one quart per day).

daily life 1600 18001
Intro

Society’s Structure

Nobility

England vs. French

The “Masses”

Mortality Rates

Family

Women’s Lives

Peasant Life

Pugachev Rebellion

Urban Workers & Guilds

Fun/Entertainment

Key Terms

Bourgeoisie

Family Economy

Cottage Industry

Dowry

Corvée

Emelian Pugachev

Apprentice

Journeyman

Master

Daily Life (1600-1800)