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ROLE OF RELIGION 1600-1800. OVERVIEW. 1 ST Amendment: “Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, nor prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” Religion’s role in government today? What do you think?. NATIVE AMERICANS.

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overview
OVERVIEW
  • 1ST Amendment:
    • “Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, nor prohibiting the free exercise thereof.”
  • Religion’s role in government today?
    • What do you think?
native americans
NATIVE AMERICANS
  • Religious diversity in N. America before European conquerors
  • Spain
    • Forced natives to convert to Catholicism
  • France
    • Also Catholic, but not as aggressive
  • RESULT:
    • The destruction of spiritual lives in Native Americans
african americans
AFRICAN AMERICANS
  • Most effective way of enduring slave conditions
  • Were forced to convert by their white masters
  • Blended African spiritual expression with the Christian religion
  • Effect:
    • Creation of rich tradition of religious expression that continues to enrich all of America
religion in the colonies
RELIGION IN THE COLONIES
  • Religion was most powerful force for colonization
    • Also major source of conflict within colonies
  • Church of England was the “established” church.
    • Meant the official church
    • Taxes must be paid to that church
  • Dissenters set up colonies elsewhere
    • Rhode Island, Pennsylvania
religious zealots in massachusetts
RELIGIOUS ZEALOTS IN MASSACHUSETTS
  • Had been oppressed by church of England
  • 1630: Puritans set up a colony in Mass
  • Left England to “purify” the church and set up a “godly society”
  • Led by John Calvin
    • Believed God had already chosen the select few who would be saved
    • What about the rest of the people?
religious zealots in massachusetts1
RELIGIOUS ZEALOTS IN MASSACHUSETTS
  • Those “saved” called themselves “visible saints”
  • Sought to protect their society from being poisoned by the damned
  • What adjective can be used to describe them?
  • Patriarchal society-women not allowed in government
  • Invented the “town hall meeting”
    • Still used today
religious zealots in massachusetts2
RELIGIOUS ZEALOTS IN MASSACHUSETTS
  • those who disagreed were banished
    • Roger Williams
  • Flees to Rhode Island
    • Complete freedom of worship
    • Separation of church and state
  • Salem Witch Trials 1692
    • Less children were claiming the vision
    • Puritans needed a scapegoat
    • 2 girls claimed they could ID witches
    • 20 women were tried and executed as witches
quakers in pennsylvania
QUAKERS IN PENNSYLVANIA
  • Believed God existed as an “inner light”
  • Made everyone equal in God’s eyes
  • No minister needed
  • No taxes to be paid to established church
  • Negotiated with Native Americans for land (unlike Puritans)
  • Refused to serve in military
  • Complete freedom of worship
first great awakening
FIRST GREAT AWAKENING
  • Movement to revitalize religion in colonies
  • Called Congregationalists
  • Led by Jonathan Edwards
  • Call to be “born again”
  • Claimed people could reach salvation without the help of clergy most important idea from the First Great Awakening
  • Called for unity (first time in colonies)
  • Led to foundings of Princeton and Brown universities
enlightenment religion vs reason
ENLIGHTENMENTRELIGION VS REASON
  • First Great Awakening during Enlightenment in Europe
  • Enlightenment: entire universe worked according to natural laws
  • Movement away from superstition and toward reason
  • John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • Enlightenment thinkers were Deists
enlightenment religion vs reason1
ENLIGHTENMENTRELIGION VS REASON
  • Enlightenment thinkers were Deists
    • God created world, but was not actively present in it
  • Mankind’s duty to discover those natural laws
  • Our Founding Fathers (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton) were Deists
    • Distrusted organized religion
religion and the constitution
RELIGION AND THE CONSTITUTION
  • Because of their distrust, Jefferson called for the “separation of church and state”
  • Remember 1st Amendment (no need to write this down again):
    • Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion nor prohibiting the free exercise thereof”
    • First part of it is called the Establishment Clause
    • 2nd part called the Free Exercise Clause