Early Use Patterns of Alcohol The slavery period: • Slaves in America often came from tribes familiar with fermentation where alcohol was an important part of social interactions and religion.(Heath, 1975). • Such societies with well established drinking patterns might be expected to have histories of minimal disruptive behaviors related to alcohol use. (Netting, 1964).
Early Use Patterns of Alcohol • The use of drugs has a long history in Africa. Most tribal groups south of the Sahara were exposed to marijuana long ago by Arab traders and neighboring tribes.(Du toit, 1991). • Once slaves came to America, they were exposed to all opportunities to use drugs, as was true in other American groups.
Is There a Drug Problem • An estimate 14.8 million Americans are current illicit drug users • Heavy drinking occurs most frequently among African American male between the ages of 18 and 25 • Up to 60% of fatalities and 49% of injuries can be linked to alcohol consumption and or drug use • Current drug revenue in America is estimated to be over 1Billion dollars annually • 75% of African American admitted to using drugs at school or work. 64% report that drugs have adversely affected their performance • 44% say they have sold drugs to friends and associates
Is There a Drug Problem • 20% say they have stolen from family and friends • There are 350 diseases secondary to alcohol and drug use • Sentencing for African Americans caught with crack is 100% harsher than powder cocaine • Of the African Americans diagnosed as alcohol or drug abusers: • 1% Recover • 2% Get Treatment • 97% Die
Addiction Defined • Addiction is the continued repetition of a behavior despite adverse consequences • Psychologically • Physically • Emotionally • Spiritually
Areas of Possible Vulnerabilities for Blacks Education • Schooling was denied blacks during slavery and, for the most part, in the post civil war period. • Even currently, education is considered inferior in central city areas where some Black populations reside.
Areas of Possible Vulnerabilities for African Americans Family structure • As part of slavery, families were destroyed and the damage was intensified by modern day approaches to welfare which undercut the cohesiveness of the family structure. • The proportion of Black youth in single parent households is relatively high. • Data support the contention that decreased levels of parental monitoring and supervision during free time are associated with higher levels of substance use in youth. ( Genet , 1998 )
Areas of Possible Vulnerabilities for Africian Americans Issues related to religion • In the post civil war era, the Christian churches helped to decrease exposure to drugs and heavy drinking. • Over the years, the influence of the church waned at the same time that exposure to drugs and pressures to drink increased.(James & Johnson, 1996).
Is There a problem? • WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS