Chapter 3 Section 2 The New England colonies
Essential question • How did religious beliefs and dissent influence the new England colonists?
1. Describe the geography and climate of the new England colonies (page 71) States Land Features climate Hills Low mountains Dense forests Thin, rocky soil Long, jagged coastline Narrow plains Long, cold, snowy winters Short, warm summers
2. Describe the puritan settlement in Massachusetts “Similar to the pilgrims, a group known as the puritans had disagreements with the church of England. Rather than split off from the established church, they wanted to reform, or change, it…the 1620s brought hard times for England’s puritans. King Charles I opposed their movement and persecuted them… A number of them eventually decided to leave England and make the hazardous voyage to north America.” (page 72)
Massachusetts bay colony • In 1630, Puritans “received a charter to establish settlements in what are now Massachusetts and new Hampshire” (page 72 – 73). they named this the Massachusetts bay colony. • The main town was Boston. • By 1643, about 20,000 people lived in the Massachusetts bay colony. • They formed an elected assembly, and each town sent representatives to the general court. • Voting was limited to adult male members of the puritan church
John Winthrop “Now the only way…is…to walk humbly with our god…we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us” – john Winthrop (page 72)
Religious Freedom? • “the puritans had founded their colony so they could worship as they chose. However, they did not give non-puritans the same right. The puritans did not believe in religious toleration – recognition that other people have the right to different opinions” (page 73)
3. Identify the new settlements that developed in New England as a result of puritan religious practices. • Roger Williams and his beliefs – • Puritan minister in the town of Salem • Felt complete split from church of England was necessary • Felt native lands should be purchased, not seized
Rhode island “Williams was forced to leave Massachusetts bay in 1635. He moved south, to what is today Rhode island, where he bought land from native Americans. In 1636, he founded the town of providence” (page 73).
Rhode island “In 1644, the colonists in rhode island received a charter from the king to govern themselves. In doing so, they made an important contribution to religious toleration. They decided that rhode island would have no established church. People of all faiths could worship as they saw fit. Among the people who found religious freedom in rhode island were followers of the jewish faith” (page 75). Click on the picture above to watch a short video on Puritanism and religious freedom.
Anne hutchinson “ A boston woman, anne Hutchinson, questioned some of the puritan’s teachings. She was put on trial in 1638 and was expelled from Massachusetts. Hutchinson established a settlement on an island that is now a part of rhode island. In 1642, she traveled farther south, into what is today new York state” (page 75).
Thomas hooker and Connecticut • Puritan minister who disagreed with puritan leaders. • Left Massachusetts with about 100 followers in 1636 and settled into what is now Connecticut. • 1639 – government with elected legislature and governor. • 1662 – charter from king granting self government.
John wheelright and new hampshire • Forced to leave Massachusetts for agreeing with some of anne Hutchinson’s views. • Moved to what is today the state of new Hampshire. • Granted a charter from the king in 1680 making new Hampshire a separate colony.
4. Explain the changes that took place in the new England colonies in the 1600s. • Puritan government • Each puritan town established its own government by setting up town meetings. • Only male heads-of-households could attend and vote on local issues. • At town meetings, taxes were set and local leaders were elected. • Ways to earn a living • Farmers grew crops on small farms • Fishing in the Atlantic ocean • Shipbuilding industry • Strengthened fishing industry • Strengthened shipping industry
Native American population decrease • “By the 1670s, the native American population was decreasing, mainly because large numbers of native Americans had died from diseases that they caught from Europeans. By 1670, there were only 12,000 native Americans in new England, one tenth of their population 100 years earlier” (page 76).
King Phillip's war In 1675, Wampanoag chief metacom (his English name was king Phillip) led a group in a war against puritan expansion. Metacom and his allies destroyed 12 English towns. The war ended in 1676 when matacom was captured and killed. The war’s end left English colonies the ability to expand without the worry of indian interference.
Puritan influence declines • “by the 1670s, the outlook of new Englanders was changing…[many had] lost their religious fervor, [and] concentrated more on running farms and businesses…[so religion had] less influence over the people who lived there” (page 76).
Exit slip question:what common occurrence led to the establishment of the colonies of rhode island, Connecticut and new Hampshire?