Welcome to world geography
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Welcome to World Geography!. Using Maps. Compasss Rose/Directional Indicator Legend/Key Scale. Basic Map Components. AKA: directional indicator Shows cardinal directions N, S, E, W Often indicates intermediate directions NE, SE, SW, NW. Compass Rose. AKA: Key

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Basic map components

Compasss Rose/Directional Indicator



Basic Map Components

Compass rose

Compass Rose


  • AKA: Key

  • Tells about symbols used on the map




The global grid

Parallels of Latitude real world

Meridians of longitude

The Global Grid

The global grid1

The Global Grid

Lines of latitude

  • AKA: Parallels covering the whole globe

  • Why?

    • The lines run parallel to the EQUATOR

  • Every place has a specific latitude

  • 0 degrees latitude= Equator

Lines of Latitude

Lines of longitude

  • AKA: Meridians covering the whole globe

  • Run from pole to pole

  • Cross the lines of latitude

  • Every place on earth has a specific longitude

  • 0 degrees longitude=

  • Prime Meridian (Greenwich Meridian)

Lines of Longitude

Latitude and longitude practice
Latitude and Longitude Practice covering the whole globe

Welcome to world geography

What does a map legend indicate? covering the whole globeTells the user about the symbols used on the map.What are the four cardinal directions?North, South, East, and WestIn what directions do meridians of longitude run?North and SouthLines of latitude?East and West

Displaying information

  • Globe covering the whole globe: the MOST ACCURATE method of showing the entire surface of the earth

  • What are possible problems of carrying a globe around with you?

Displaying Information


  • Cartographers covering the whole globe

    • mapmakers

  • Map projections

    • Ways of showing the earth on a flat page

  • Distortion

    • A twisting out of normal shape or form.

    • A lack of correspondence of size or intensity in an image or object


Welcome to world geography

What problem do cartographers face? covering the whole globeRepresenting our round planet on a flat page.What are map projections?Efforts to make the best possible representation with the least distortion.

Great circle routes

  • Great Circle covering the whole globe

    • An imaginary line that circles the earth, creating two EQUAL hemispheres

  • Airplanes often use great circle routes to save fuel and to reduce travel time.

Great Circle Routes

Trivia time

  • loxodrome covering the whole globe

  • curve cutting the meridians of a sphere at a constant nonright angle. Thus, it may be seen as the path of a ship sailing always oblique to the meridian and directed always to the same point of the compass. Pedro Nunes, who first conceived the curve (1550), mistakenly believed it to be the shortest path joining two points on a sphere (see great circle route). Any ship following such a course would, because of convergence of meridians on the poles, travel around the Earth on a spiral that approaches one of the poles as a limit. On a Mercator projection such a line ( rhumb line) would be straight. Rhumb lines are used to simplify small-scale charting

  • Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

Trivia Time!

Mercator vs robinson projection
Mercator vs. Robinson Projection covering the whole globe

Mercator projection

  • One of the most covering the whole globesimple yet most distorted projections

  • Why?

    • Images at the poles are spread in order to flatten the globe

    • This makes areas at the poles larger than they really are

  • Shapes are more accurate, but areas and sizes are not

Mercator Projection

Robinson projection

  • Less size and shape distortion covering the whole globe

  • Areas at the poles appear flatter than they really are

  • Land on eastern and western edges are fairly accurate in size and shape

Robinson Projection

Welcome to world geography

What is the most accurate way to display information about the earth?A globe.What is another name for a cartographer?Mapmaker.What route do pilots take in order to save fuel and reduce travel time?Great circles.What is the advantage of a Robinson projection?Maps have less size and shape distortion.

Types of maps
Types of Maps the earth?

Types of maps1

General Purpose the earth?

Special Purpose

  • Show information that is most often used by readers

    • Physical

    • Political

  • AKA: Thematic Maps

  • Relay information about specific types of data

    • Climate

    • Vegetation

    • Natural resource use/economic activities

    • Population density

    • Population distribution

Types of Maps

Physical maps

  • AKA: Relief maps the earth?

  • Show physical features of an area

    • Mountains

    • Rivers

    • Lakes

  • Relief-the changing elevation of the land

  • Colors used:

    • Green for lower relief

    • Brown for higher relief

    • Blue for water bodies

Physical Maps

Political maps

  • Show political features the earth?

  • Political features are determined by people

    • State boundaries

    • National boundaries

    • Cities

    • Capitals

Political Maps

Special purpose maps

  • Climate the earth?

    • General temperature and precipitation patterns

    • Usually shown in various colors on the map key

Special-Purpose Maps

Special purpose maps1

  • Economic Activities/Natural Resources the earth?

    • Symbols show key locations of activities and resources

  • Economic activities-ways in which people produce and distribute goods and services

Special-Purpose Maps

Special purpose maps2

  • Population Density the earth?

    • The average number of people living in a given area

    • Listed per sq mi or

      sq km

Special Purpose Maps

Welcome to world geography

How does a natural resources map show where different resources are found?By using symbols to show key locations of activities and resources.What is the difference between an economic activity and a natural resource?Economic activities-ways in which people produce and distribute goods and servicesNatural resource-item in the environment that people need and value