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Review. Grades & what they mean. Plan. ‘Multiple Personality Disorder’ (or, ‘Dissociative Identity Disorder’) Module review Essay review Exam preview. What makes you you ?. TIME. “Dissociative Identity disorder”. Psychiatry meets Philosophy. B IV. Sally. B I. B IVa. B Ia. B II.

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slide3
Plan
  • ‘Multiple Personality Disorder’ (or, ‘Dissociative Identity Disorder’)
  • Module review
  • Essay review
  • Exam preview
dissociative identity disorder
“Dissociative Identity disorder”

Psychiatry meets Philosophy

slide6

B IV

Sally

B I

B IVa

B Ia

B II

1893-

Sober, responsible, well-balanced

  • Claims to be both BI & BIV
  • Has virtues of both, but not their vices

1904

multiple persons
‘Multiple Persons’
  • No continuity of consciousness
  • Radically different personality, each complex & consistent internally
  • Each is an intentional system
  • 1st person perspective shows self-understanding as person
  • Alternate & Simultaneous existence
1 person
‘1 Person’

2 senses of person/personality

Reality meaning

Appearance meaning

  • Persona, mask
  • How you present yourself to others
  • Person in the numerical sense
  • The true self
n atural kinds
Natural kinds
  • There is a distinction between the natural & artificial
  • We are familiar with natural persons and can refer to them to discern the unnatural
  • Natural persons are not like BI, BIV, Sally
christine beauchamp is 1 person
Christine Beauchamp is 1 person

“Miss Beauchamp's personalities suffer from severe mental and physical defects: aboulia, impulsions, neurasthenia, amnesia of actions and thoughts, violent mood and character changes, abnormal suggestibility, and severe limitations in their ability to adapt to their environment.

Normal, real persons do not suffer from these defects, or at least not all of them.”

real or natural
Real or natural?
  • Conflation of ‘real’, ‘normal’, ‘natural’
    • Are they the same?
  • Must all real persons be ‘normal/natural’ persons?
  • Why must the real self be what’s best adapted to the environment?
lizza s argument
Lizza’s argument

???

Complex & distinct personalities, intentional systems, 1st person understanding

What’s normalor natural

Reality meaning

Appearance meaning

  • Persona, mask
  • How you present yourself to others
  • Person in the numerical sense
  • The true self

Aren’t the normal & natural also appearances?

how should we treat christine beauchamp
How should we treat Christine Beauchamp?
  • A matter of psychiatry/psychology
  • But how you treat her depends on a philosophical judgment
    • 1 body, multiple persons?
    • 1 person, multiple personas?
introduction to philosophy
Introduction to Philosophy

Through Process

Through Issues

tuesdays with morrie
Tuesdays with Morrie

“So many people walk around with a meaningless life. They seem half-asleep, even when they’re busy doing things they think are important. This is because they’re chasing the wrong things.

The way you get meaning into your life is to devote yourself to loving others, devote yourself to your community around you, and devote yourself to creating something that gives you purpose and meaning.”

- Morrie Schwartz

to think or not to think
To think or not to think?

Not to think!

To think!

what s the point of it all
What’s the point of it all?

Studies & career

Friends & foes

Pleasure & suffering

Malice & kindness

Life & death

big questions
Big Questions
  • What am I?
  • How should I live?
  • Am I free?
values self knowledge
Values, Self & Knowledge

Am I free?

How should I live?

What am I?

Making sense of it all

worldviews
Worldviews

Comprehensive explanation of everything

  • All that is
  • All that has been
  • All that will be
worldviews1
Worldviews

Religion

Science

science
Science
  • Observable evidence
  • Rigorous method
  • Great discoveries
  • Demystifying effect

Science can’t explain everything yet, but there is good reason to think it will.

problems with the science wordview
Problems with the Science wordview
  • What can Science do?
    • Explain observable phenomena via laws of physics/chemistry/biology
  • Too BIGfor Science?
slide26

?

?

Others

B

A

C

X

Y

Z

the puzzle
The puzzle

Physical entities & biological organisms

???

Fundamental features of the universe

Laws of nature

what happened
What happened?

Possible explanations

  • Robbery
  • Hurricane
  • Don’t know
  • It simply happened and there’s no explanation for it
too big for science
Too BIG for Science?

That there are things

  • Fundamental features of the universe
    • Laws, constants

How things are

  • Life-giving universe
    • Highly improbable ‘fine-tuning’ of the universe allows for intelligent life to exist
too odd for science
Too ODD for Science?

Libertarian Freedom

  • Power to choose
  • Independence from natural laws

The mind

  • The nature of the mental

Objective moral truths

  • Moral truths cannot be reduced to scientific truths
god of the gaps
God of the gaps
  • Argument based on what we don’t understand
    • Just because we don’t understand it doesn’t make it more likely that God is the best explanation
  • We need arguments based on what we understand
the puzzle1
The puzzle

Physical entities & biological organisms

???

Fundamental features of the universe

Laws of nature

the god hypothesis
The God hypothesis

??

Physical entities & biological organisms

God

Fundamental features of the universe

Laws of nature

objective moral truths
Objective moral truths

Physical Reality

Science

God

Moral Reality

can god create morality
Can God create morality?

“Torturing innocent people for fun is morally wrong.”

Is that morally wrong because God says it is?

Did God say it is morally wrong because it really is?

OR

Morality is arbitrary

Morality is not created by God

worldviews2
Worldviews

Comprehensive explanation of everything

  • All that is
  • All that has been
  • All that will be
introduction to philosophy1
Introduction to Philosophy

Through Process

Through Issues

philosophy through puzzles
Philosophy through puzzles

Theory A, Strengths & Weaknesses

Theory B, Strengths & Weaknesses

Puzzle – Proposed Solution – Objection – Revised Solution – Objection…

System of arriving at solutions

easily transferable skills
Easily transferable skills
  • Conceptual powers
      • Ability to spot abstract patterns
          • Link the superficially different
          • Separate the superficially similar
testing a philosophical view
Testing a philosophical view

Philosophical View

Observation/Reflection

Hypothesis/Prediction

Compare

overview of process
Overview of process

Starting point

Abstraction

Distinction

Thought experiments

the detective story
The Detective Story
  • Agent Black is always one step behind his colleague Mrs Holmes
  • They often work together, but she keeps solving the cases
  • But each time, he looks back on the case and believes he could have solved it too
problem solving
Problem-solving
  • Better to be structured rather than random
  • Better to have a cumulative method rather than always starting anew
progress
Progress
  • Incremental & Systemic
  • Not merely about diligence and interest
  • Higher-order skills
    • Not just solving more problems
    • Analysing and improving your problem-solving approach
  • Criteria, Review, Deliberate observation
the good l ife
The Good Life
  • Thoughtful people seek meaning in life
    • The nature of reality and their place within it
  • Difficult but is there a better alternative?
    • Pursuit of truth and meaning as part of the good life
looking back together
Looking back together
  • Workload
  • Meetings
  • Assessment
  • Topics
looking back together1
Looking back together
  • Essay plan (start of week 6)
  • Essay (start of week 11)
  • Final exam (end of term)
  • Track progress
    • Mid-term exam (start week 8)
  • Start detailed analysis
    • Start Essay plan (start of week 10)
  • Demonstrate learning via topic of interest
    • Essay (start of week 14)
topics values self knowledge
Topics: Values, Self & Knowledge

Knowledge

Values

Self

  • Why should I be moral?
  • What is morality?
  • Applies ethics:
    • Lying, Eating meat, climate change
  • Am I free?
  • Is the mind just the brain?
  • What makes me me
    • ‘Multiple personalities’
  • Is everything learnt through the 5 senses?
  • Is knowledge merely a social construct?
  • How do I know I am not in he Matrix?
in progress
In progress

Various essays on applied ethics

  • Philosophy essays on Singapore-related matters
  • 377A, treatment of strays, capitalism, State welfare, ‘foreign talent’ in sports

Continue discussing via email/FB

philosophy public affairs
Philosophy & Public Affairs

Foreign Talent, Local Glory:

Can National Excellence Be Outsourced?

essay review
Essay Review
  • Focus on reasoning
    • Understanding of issue
    • Quality of argument
  • But supporting considerations also matter
    • Essay organisation
    • Language
areas to note
Areas to note
  • Balancing the macro & micro
    • The main ideas should be clear
    • Where you are going & how you got there
    • Details matter only when they add to the main ideas
  • Transitions
    • ‘Narrator’
  • Commendation
    • Ian, Zhan Yong
areas to note1
Areas to note
  • Quality of argument
    • Attention to subtle distinctions & principles
    • Ability to clearly explain them
    • Suggested test
  • Commendation
    • Samuel, Ian, Yi Huan
clarity of expression
Clarity of expression
  • Can an average person understand you in her 1st careful reading?
  • Note details
    • Spelling
    • Technical terms
    • Choice of words
    • Paragraphing
  • Commendation
    • Laxman, Jillian, Azalea
exam analysis
Exam analysis

Overview

  • Part A
    • Brief explanation of concepts/issues
    • 4/5 sentences
  • Part B
    • Detailed response
    • Explanation/critique
    • 3/4 paragraphs
part a
Part A
  • General idea
    • Quick recall
  • Some key details
    • Relevance/context
    • Contrast it to opposing idea
    • Key concepts
  • Use example to illustrate if necessary
  • Note to self:
    • Beware of confusing it with…
    • Time constraint
    • Don’t evaluate/argue
part b
Part B
  • Review class discussions, readings
    • Stick to requirements
    • Make clear your stand if needed
  • 2-part questions
    • 15/10 marks split
  • Explain arguments
    • Note conclusion
    • Quickly provide necessary definitions
    • Explain key steps
    • Objection
practice
Practice

Part A

  • Privileged access (to your own thoughts)

Part B

  • Is indeterminism compatible with freedom? Why or why not? Please defend your view.
part a1
Part A

Privileged access (to your own thoughts)

  • Refers to the way you know about your own thoughts
    • Direct knowledge
    • Cannot be mistaken
  • This differs from how others know about your thoughts
    • Indirect & fallible
  • Indicates an apparent distinction between the mental and the physical
    • Public access to the physical (no one is necessarily privileged)
part b1
Part B

Is indeterminism compatible with freedom? Why or why not? Please defend your view.

  • Define indeterminism
    • Indeterministic events have no cause. Contrast with determinism.
  • It is not compatible with freedom
    • Seems random. In exactly the came conditions, the outcome can differ, and there’s no explanation
    • Freedom involves control. Randomness seems wholly accidental.
    • Example
  • Freedom needs link causal link between agent and action
    • Indeterminism cannot provide that link (e.g. desire)