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Current Status of Solid Breeder TBM in China. Presented by: Kaiming Feng (On behalf of Chinese HCCB TBM Team). Co-Institutes: 1). China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), Mianyang, P.R. China 2). Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) , Beijing, 100084, P.R. China.

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Current Status of Solid Breeder TBM in China

Presented by: Kaiming Feng

(On behalf of Chinese HCCB TBM Team)


1). China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), Mianyang, P.R. China

2). Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) , Beijing, 100084, P.R. China.

3). Chinese Institute of Nuclear Power(CINP), Chengdu 610043, P.R. China

4). Shanghai Ceramic Institute, Chinese Academy of Science (SCICAS), P.R. China

Presented at CBBI-16 meeting

Sep. 8 -10, 2011, Red Lion on the River , Portland, OR, USA



1. Introduction

2. Progress on Updated Design

3. Progress on Relevant R&D

4. Test Plan and Cooperation

5. Summary

1 introduction
1. Introduction
  • ITER is an unique opportunity to test tritium breeding blanket mock-ups in an integrated tokamak operating conditions;
  • Helium-cooled ceramicbreeder (HCCB) test blanket module will be the primary optionof the Chinese ITER TBM program;
  • China has the position of Port Master (PM) in port number 2 and is leading the HCCB concept as the TBM Leader (TL). CN HCCB TBM will be tested at different phases of ITER operation;
  • In order to reduce the effects of magnetic field ripple, the TBM design was updated with reduced RAFM mass;
  • Related R&D on key components, materials, fabrication and mock-up test have being implemented in China.

Roadmap to DEMO

  • It was assumed that DEMO is a next step after ITER.
  • DEMO will demonstrate the integration technology, materials, economics, safety, and environment for the fusion energy applications.
  • TBM testing on ITER is an important approach toward to DEMO.



Power Plant






Fusion Breeder?





hcsb demo blanket concept
HCSB-DEMO Blanket Concept
  • As one options of breeding blanket with the Helium-cooled solid breeders/RAFM steel (HCSB-DEMO) will be chosen as China’s DEMO blanket concepts.
  • HCCB TBM will demonstrate the functions required for Chinese HCSB-DEMO blanket under at ITER operation condition.

3-D View of HCSB DEMO blanket

  • .K.M.Feng,, J. Fusion Eng.& Desgn, 84(2009)2109-2113.

HC-SB DEMO Blanket

tbm concepts and port sharing
TBM Concepts and Port-Sharing

Six TBM Systems to be installed in ITER in different operation phases

PM : Port Master, TL : TBM Leader

HCLL : Helium-cooled Lithium Lead HCPB : He-cooled Pebble Beds (Ceramic/Beryllium)

WCCB : Water-cooled Ceramic Breeder (+Beryllium) HCCB : He-cooled Ceramic Breeder (+Beryllium)

LLCB : Lithium-Lead Ceramic Breeder (LiPb & He, Dual-Coolant type)


CN HCCB TBM will demonstrate the functions required

for Chinese DEMO blanket in ITER condition

ITER cross-section

Relationship of ITER,TBM and DEMO



2. Progress on CN HCCB TBM Design

  • A series of the Chinese HCCB TBM design have been carried-out since 2004 within the space limitation and technical requirements specified by ITER.
outline of hccb tbm design
Outline of HCCB TBM Design
  • Originally design of CN HCCB TBM have been completed before 2009.

Basic design characteristics:

- TBM structure: Sub-module arrangement

- Structure material: RAFM (CLF-1);

- Tritium breeder: Li4SiO4 pebble bed, 80%Li-6 ;

- Neutron multiplier: Be pebbles bed;

- Coolant and purge gas: Helium gas

- Coolant pressure: 8MPa

- Coolant temperature: 300 OC(inlet) -500 OC (outlet)

- Tritium production ratio (TPR): 0.0505g/d

Cross-section of SB

Integration View of CN HCSB TBM

Assembly scheme of Sub-Modules


Updated Design of HCCB TBM for Reduction RAFM Mass

  • Objectives of updated design:
  • - to simplify Sub-module structure;
  • - toreduce RAFM mass;
  • - to improve TPR performance;
  • Results shown:

- The RAFM mass is reduced from 2.3t to 1.6t).

- TPR is increased by factor from 0.051g/day to 0.0798g/day.

Cross-section of SM


TBM Sub-module arrangement

  • Main modification
  • Reduce radial dimension of the FW and sub-modules.
  • Bypass is introduced to TBM design to control the difference of flow-rates .
  • - Arrangement of pebble beds in the sub-module is changed from the former transverse direction to the current vertical direction.
  • An optimized all RAFM design with reduced mass of 1.3t is on going.
  • A updated DDD report will be completed soon.

Exploded view of sub-module


Performance Analyses for Updated TBM Design

Tmax= 517 OC

Tmax= 548 OC

Tmax= 621 OC

b) Be pebble bed

c) Li4SiO4 pebble bed


a) RAFM material

Temperature Distribution of Sub-module

  • Main calculation results

Temperature and stress distribution of FW

  • Main parameters meet design requirement.
  • TPR is obviously increased.

Performance Analyses for Updated TBM Design

Thermal analysis

thermal analysis model

Primary stress

Secondary stress

Thermal analysis results of sub-module

Stress analysis


CN TBS Integration with ITER (Con’t)

2 half-ports





View of Pipe Forest and TBM-Sets in Port #2


CN TBS Integration with ITER

Tokamak Coolant Water System vault

India part

Port Cell area

Port Cell



(Pipe forest)

Port 2#

(Port Plug)

L2 of Tritium building for TES

China part

  • Space reserved for CN TBS has been identified.
  • Arrangements of CN TBS have been considered.
  • Investigation of components which selected for CN TBS has been done.
  • Strategy for Pipe Forest maintenance has been coordinated with IO people.

Interface 3

Interface 1

Interface 2a

Interface 2b

Space Arrangement Identification of CN TBS

Space arrangement


3. Progress on R&D:Structural Materials-CLF-1

  • Two RAFM alloys are being developed in China; CLF and CLAM
  • A 500kg and 1-ton ingots of CLF-1 steel were recently produced byvacuum induction melting and electro-slag remelting method.
  • The optimization of the melting technique forthe larger ingots to is underway.

Consumable electrode furnace

Remelting facility

1-ton Ingot of CLF-1

Tensile strength of CLF-1


500kg Ingot of CLF-1

3 progress on r d ceramic breeder pebbles
3. Progress on R&D:Ceramic Breeder Pebbles
  • Two kinds of ceramic breeders (Li4SiO4, Li2TiO3) for TBM are being developed at different institutions in China;
  • Lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4 ) pebbles will be the primary option in the CN HCCB TBM.
  • Ceramic breeder (Li4SiO4) pebbles fabricated by melt spraying method have good sphericity, and high density.
  • Ceramic breeder (Li4SiO4) pebbles prepared by Freeze-sintering process have good mechanical properties (the average crush load is 50N) ;
  • Li2TiO3Pebbles have good surface feature by using sol-gel method.

XRD pattern of Li4SiO4 pebbles

Li4SiO4 Pebbles (D=1mm)

by metl spraying method @SWIP

Li4SiO4 Pebbles (D=1mm)

by freeze-sintering method @CAEP

Main properties (Li4SiO4) by melt spraying method

Li4SiO4 Pebbles (D=1mm) by

extrusion–sintering method @CIAE

Li2TiO3 Pebbles (D=1mm)@CAEP

3 progress on r d fabrication of be pebbles
3. Progress on R&D:Fabrication of Be Pebbles

Main chemical composition of Chinese Be 1#

  • Be metal of high performance was developed in China .
  • Be pebbles have been produced by Rotating Electrode Process (REP) method in China. Related performance tests are on going.
  • A new project to develop higher quality Be pebbles in China is being implemented for the ITER project.

Chemical Composition of Be pebble

Be Pebbles (D=1mm)

Sample of Be Pebbles(D=1mm)

Micrographs of Be Pebbles (D=1mm)

REP Facility at HBSM Co.


3. Progress on R&D: Helium Coolant Test Loop

  • The construction of a small He Test Loop to validate circulator technology will be completed soon.
  • - The He test loop has two impellers. It uses aerostatic bearings to avoid oil lubricating.

Main parameters of circulator design

Flow diagram of small He loop

3-D view of circulator

Impeller of circulator

  • A prototyped Helium Test Loop to validate TBM components and design is also to be built in SWIP. The circulator will use magnetic bearings. The flow rate will up to 1.3kg/s.

Layout of He Loop

Cross-section view

Flow diagram of He Loop

3 progress on r d fabrication process of u shaped fw
3. Progress on R&D:Fabrication Process of U-Shaped FW
  • A small-sized mock-up (1:3) of U-shaped first wall is completed;
  • Two kinds of fabrication method of U-shaped FW have been considered;
3 progress on r d fabrication of small sized mock up
3. Progress on R&D:Fabrication of Small Sized Mock-up
  • A full-sized mock-up with 2X2 sub-modules arrangement using the RAFM steel (CLF-1) as structure material will be completed in this year.
4 tbs r d and delivery plan
4. TBS R&D and Delivery Plan

High flux test reactor

  • 3. EM-TBM will be installed in ITER port after the first plasma shutdown (2019)

1. CN HCCB TBS qualification activities

  • Helium experimental loop (1:3) construction (2010.01-2011.06)
  • Conceptual design of CN HCCB TBM(2010.01-2012.12)
  • CN TBM testing and update design (2011.06-2013.12)
  • Preliminary design of CN HCCB TBM (2013.01-2013.12)
  • Prototype helium loop construction (2012.01-2014.06)
  • Large scale TBM mock-up tests (2014.06-2015.12)
  • Final design of CN HCCB TBM (2014.01-2015.12)

2. CN HCCB TBS delivery activities.

  • Main TBS components fabrication (2016.01-2017.06)
    • Final TBS design in ITER.
    • Main TBS components fabrication.
    • TBS function tests (domestic).
  • CN TBS delivery (2016.12-2017.06)
  • CN TBS acceptance tests in ITER site (2017.06-2017.12)
  • EM TBM delivery (2018.01-2018.06)
  • EM-TBM System acceptance tests(2018.06-2019.06)

Domestic and Intl. Cooperation

  • A lot of domestic units are joined into CN HCCB TBM program, including universities, institutes and industry company


Safe & QA Team

Design Team

R&D Team


















CAEP:China Academy of Engineering Physics; CIAE: China Institute of Atomic Energy;

SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University; ASIPP: Institute of Plasma Physics; Academy of Sciences ;

NCEPU: North China Electric Power University; NECB: Nuclear Engineer Corporation , Beijing

NPIC: Nuclear Power Institute, China; IMPCAS: Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences;

TUINET: Tsinghua University, Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology; XJTU: Xi’an Jiao Tong University;

SICCAS: Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; HBSMC: Haibao special metal materials Co.


Domestic and Intl. Cooperation

Intl. Cooperation and Partnership

  • CN HCCB TBM will be operated and tested on ITER through international cooperation under the frame of partnership with ITER parties.
  • China is interested in other TBM concepts as a partner in HCPB-TBM, WCCB-TBM and LiPb-based TBMs.
  • China HCCB TBM is open to cooperation with other ITER parties. Some informal discussions, for instance, CN-EU,CN-JA, CN-KO, has been started.
  • CN-US bilateral cooperation meeting on TBM program will held on Nov.7-9, 2011.
5 summary
5. Summary
  • HCSB TBM with the Solid Breeder/Helium coolant/ RAFM material is the primary option of the Chinese TBM program.
  • Updated design, current progress on R&D, test and delivery plan up to the installation in ITER (2019) are presented.
  • Relevant R&D on key techniques for the HCSB TBM concept are supported by the Chinese ITER- DA domestic agency (2009-2012) , including:
    • TBM optimization design and validation of key technologies;
    • Fabrication of Li4SiO4 pebbles and Be pebbles to large-scaled level;
    • Fabrication of structure material RAFM to ton level;
    • Construction of High Heat Flux Test Facility (Power:400kW);
    • Construction of small-scale and prototyped Helium Test Loop.
  • Testing HCSB TBM on ITER will be implemented with the cooperation of domestic and international institutions and industries.