Queen Elizabeth I Chapter 14, Section 1
King Henry VIII • Elizabeth’s father, Henry VIII, wanted a son as an heir to the throne but his wife, Catherine of Aragon, was unable to conceive a son. • Henry was unable to get an annulment from the pope for his marriage to Catherine, so he split from the Catholic Church and made himself head of his own Church—the Church of England (or Anglicanism) • Elizabeth’s mother, Anne Boleyn, was Henry’s second wife. Anne was also unable to produce a son and Henry grew tired of Anne. He had her executed in 1533 when Elizabeth was 3 years old. • Henry managed to have a son, Edward VI, with his third wife. However, Edward died at a young age and Elizabeth’s older half-sister, Mary, inherited the throne.
Henry’s six wives Catherine of Aragon, married to Henry 1509-1533; banished Anne Boleyn, married to Henry 1533-1536; executed Jane Seymour, married to Henry 1536-1537; died after Edward’s birth Catherine Parr, married to Henry 1543-1547; Henry died in 1547 Catherine Howard, married to Henry 1540-1542; executed Anne of Cleves, married to Henry January 1540-July 1540; marriage annulled
Queen Mary Tudor • King Edward, Henry VIII’s only son, died in 1553 • Because there were no males to inherit the throne, there was a dispute as to who should rule over England. • Mary was the daughter of Henry’s first wife, Catherine, who was very Catholic. Mary was raised Catholic. Many in England didn’t want a Catholic queen. Mary was able to force her way to the throne anyway. • Mary became known as “Bloody Mary” for her persecution of Protestants. • Mary married Prince Philip of Spain, but was unable to have any children so she never had any heir to her the throne.
Elizabeth Tudor Ascends the throne • Elizabeth was looked to for protection by persecuted Protestants—so Mary was threatened and imprisoned her in the Tower of London. • Mary died in 1558 with no heirs and Elizabeth became queen at age 25. • Elizabeth’s coronation was in January of 1559. Elaborate banquets and celebrations were held in her honor. • Many men sought to marry Elizabeth, but she never married. For this reason, she is known as the “Virgin Queen.” Virginia was named after Elizabeth.
Elizabeth as leader of the church of England • Elizabeth looked for a middle ground between Protestantism and Catholicism. She kept Catholic symbols (the crucifix) and downplayed pastors’ sermons. • Radical Puritans were against Elizabeth’s ties to Catholicism. • In the north, Elizabeth’s cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, was seen as a threat. Mary was Catholic and seen by Catholics as the true heir to the English throne. Elizabeth had Mary imprisoned and took her son away to be raised Protestant. • Because of this, Catholics in the north rebelled. At the same time, the pope declared Elizabeth a heretic and not the real heir to the English throne. • Elizabeth executed any Catholics she believed might oppose her and had Mary executed in 1587 as well.
conflict with Spain • Mary’s husband, Prince Philip of Spain, had become King Philip II. Since Elizabeth took the English throne, he no longer had control over England. He saw Elizabeth as an illegitimate ruler and, as a Protestant, a heretic. Philip wanted to regain control of England as well as converting the English back to Catholicism.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada • In July of 1588, Philip sent his Spanish Armada—his most powerful fleet of ships—to take over England. • The English ships were faster and were more easily maneuverable, thus avoiding the Spanish attacks. • The English also used fire ships. • The Spanish were defeated, and returned back to Spain by going around England—they didn’t want to risk any more conflict with the English. The Journey home was filled with storms, causing even further destruction to the fleet.
England as a world power under Elizabeth • Elizabeth’s reign in England is often referred to as a “Golden Age.” • After the defeat of the Spanish Armada, Spain’s influence in the world decreased. • England was able to colonize parts of the New World. • The arts flourished under Elizabeth. It was at this time that William Shakespeare wrote his plays.
References • "Elizabeth I." Tudor History. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. • "Queen Elizabeth I." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. • "Spanish Armada." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation.Web. 29 Apr. 2014.