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Molecular Tools for Aiding and Breeding of Aquaculture Species
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  1. Molecular Tools for Aiding and Breeding of Aquaculture Species Masters in Aquaculture and Fisheries Genetic and Selection 2014 Tamara Moedas nº 47853; Catarina Ferreira nº 35671

  2. Molecular Tools • Allozyme markers; • Mitochondrial DNA markers (mtDNA); • Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP); • Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD); • Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP); • Microsatellite markers; • Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); • Expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

  3. Allozyme Markers

  4. Advantages: • Lowcost; • the rapidtechnique; • Ease to use; • Usuallyused in fisherygenetics. • Disadvantages: • Heterozygotedeficienciesdue to nullalleles; • Limitednumber of availableallozymelociprecludestheir use in large-scalegenome mapping; • Changesin DNA sequencereducethelevelofdetectablevariation • Are not selectively neutral.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Markers

  6. Advantages: • Highlevelsofpolymorphism; • It evolves much faster than coding regions of DNA; • Multiple copies in each cell. • Disadvantages: • Backmutation; • Parallelsubstitution; • Rate heterogeneityormutational hot spots.

  7. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)

  8. Advantage: • Codominant markers. • Disadvantages: • Low level of polymorphism; • Low power in revealing genetic variation; • Difficultand time-consumingto developmarkers in specieslackingmolecular information.

  9. RandomAmplifiedPolymorphic DNA Markers (RAPD)

  10. Advantages: • Highlevelsofpolymorphisms; • Allowsthesimultaneousanalysisofmanyloci; • Markers are inherited in dominantfashion. • Disadvantage: • Special equipment.

  11. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP)

  12. Advantages: • Analysismanylocisimultaneously; • Revealedpolymorphisms; • Inheritedas dominantmarkers; • Highreproducibility. • Disadvantage: • Special equipment.

  13. Microsatellite markers

  14. Advantages: • HightAbundantin allspecies; • Distributedin thegenomeonallchromosomes; • Lociare small; • Polymorphic; • Codominant markers. • Disadvantage: • Hightexpensive.

  15. Single NucleotidePolymorphism (SNP)

  16. Advantages: • Mostabundantpolymorphism in organism; • Revealhiddenpolymorphism; • Co-dominant markers. • Disadvantages: • Requiresspecializedequipment; • Large-scaleanalysis, dependson the availability of expensive, cutting-edgeequipment.

  17. Expressedsequencetags(ESTs)

  18. Advantages: • Identifygenes andanalyzetheirexpressionbyexpressionprofiling; • Rapidandat genes expressedin specifictissuetypes; • Developmentof cDNAmicroarrays; • Great value in genome mapping. • Disadvantage: • Identification of polymorphic ESTs is necessary for genome mapping.

  19. Conclusions

  20. Biblography • Liu, Z. J., Cordes, J. F., 2004. “DNA marker technologies and their applications in aquaculture genetics”. Aquaculture 238, pp. 1-37; • Magoulas, A.. “Application of molecular markers to aquaculture and broodstock management with special emphasis on microsatellite DNA”. CIHEM-Options Mediterraneennes, pp. 153-168; • Chauhan,T.,Rajiv, K.,2010. “Molecular markers and their applications in fisheriesandaquaculture”.UniversityofDelhi, Delhi, India.