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The cardiovascular system: blood. Chapter 11: Hematology. The functions of blood. Transportation : of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes. Regulation : of pH , blood clotting, body temperature, and renal control .

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the cardiovascular system blood

The cardiovascular system: blood

Chapter 11: Hematology

the functions of blood
The functions of blood
  • Transportation: of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes.
  • Regulation: of
    • pH,
    • blood clotting,
    • body temperature, and
    • renal control.
  • Protection: against harmful toxins and pathogens
anatomy of blood
Anatomy of blood
  • Blood is a fluid connective tissue that contains:
    • Plasma (55%)
      • Dissolved proteins
      • Denser than water
    • Formed elements (45%)
      • Blood cells
      • Platelets (cell fragments)
measuring blood
measuring blood
  • When we take blood, there are 3 characteristics we look at:
  • Temperature(100.4°F)
  • Viscosity (5x Water’s)
  • pH (7.35-7.45), Slightly Alkaline
  • Water takes up 92% of plasma volume
  • 8% Electrolytes, Proteins, Nutrients
  • Proteins:
  • Albumins (60%): of plasma proteins, produced in the liver, maintain osmotic balance (via water retention)
  • Globulins (35%):
    • Immunoglobulins: attack foreign proteins and pathogens; antibodies
    • Transport (escort) Proteins: carry compounds that are not water soluble (i.e. lipids)
  • Fibrinogens: function in blood clotting when converted to fibrin.

*Liver synthesizes many of these proteins.

Not this

formed elements
Formed elements
  • Produced via hemopoiesis (hematopoiesis)
  • Composition: (Hematocrit)
    • 99.9 % RedBloodCells (Erythrocytes)
    • <.1% WhiteBloodCells (Leukocytes)
      • ~ 1 to every 1000 RBCs
    • <.1% Platelets
red blood cells
Red blood cells
  • Shape: Biconcave discs
  • Mature RBCs lack nuclei and other organs (Erythropoiesis)
  • Life cycle: ~120 days; 1% replaced each day (3 million new cells each second!)
  • Hemoglobin: made of two globular proteins; contains heme pigment which holds an iron ion that binds with oxygen
hemoglobin iron in the blood
Hemoglobin – iron in the blood

heme a

close up of Fe


heme b

clinical note sickle cell anemia
Clinical note: Sickle Cell ANemia
  • Cause: genetic mutation that affects the globular protein of hemoglobin
  • Sickled cells can easily clot and cause oxygen starvation of tissues
antigens can trigger an immune response
Antigens – can trigger an immune response
  • Antibody generator
  • Four Blood Types:
    • Type A: surface antigen A, plasma Anti-B Antibodies
    • Type B: surface antigen B, plasma Anti-A Antibodies
    • Type AB: surface antigen A & B, no anti-A or B antibodies
    • Type O: no surface antigens A or B, plasma Anti-A & Anti-B Antibodies
    • (+/-): Determined by presence or absence of Rh antigens on RBCs
  • Cross-reactions: mixing of blood types can cause agglutination (clumping) of RBCs and eventual hemolysis (RBC destruction)
  • Anti-Rh antibodies are not normally present in plasma, unless exposure sensitizes an individual.
platelets thrombocytes
Platelets – thrombocytes
  • Cell fragments that function in blood clotting
  • Formed from megakaryocytes
  • “Stick” together at injury sites to stop bleeding (hemostasis)
white blood cells leukocytes
White blood cells – leukocytes
  • Larger than RBCs, have nuclei, lack hemoglobin
  • Function: defense against pathogens, toxins, wastes and abnormal/damaged cells
  • Two groups: granulocytes & agranulocytes
  • Amoeboid movement
  • Migration out of the blood stream
  • Some capable of phagocytosis
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  • Agranulocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  • 70% of WBSs
  • First to arrive at an injury site
  • Active phagocytes (esp. bacteria)
  • Produced in bone marrow
  • 10-hour lifespan
  • Death recruits other WBCs and forms pus
  • 2-4% of WBSs
  • Two-lobed and dyed red by eosin
  • Attack anti-body labeled materials by exocytosis (secretion) of toxins
  • Produced in bone marrow
  • <1% of WBSs
  • Deep purple/blue with many granules
  • Migrate to injury sites and stimulates inflammation (via histamine) and prevents blood clotting (heparin)
  • Stimulated basophils release chemicals to attract other basophils and eosinophils
  • Produced in bone marrow
  • 2-8% of WBSs
  • About twice as big as a RBC
  • Large free or fixed macrophages
  • Aggressive phagocytes
  • Active monocytes release chemicals to attract and stimulate other neutrophils, monocytes, phagocytes, and draw fibroblasts to the region.
  • Produced in bone marrow
  • 20-30% of WBCs
  • Large nucleus with “halo” of cytoplasm
  • Integrates with lymphatic system
  • Do not rely on phagocytosis
  • Produced in bone marrow and lymphoid tissues
abnormal amounts of leukocytes
Abnormal amounts of leukocytes
  • Too few: leukopenia
  • Too many: leukocytosis
  • Extreme leukocytosis: leukemia
    • Cancer of blood-forming tissues.
  • Hemo “blood” + stasis “halt”: stops bleeding
  • Vascular Phase: constriction of damaged blood vessels (~30mins); blood vessel spasm
  • Platelet Phase: “sticky” platelets form a platelet plug
  • Coagulation Phase: conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
abnormal hemostasis
Abnormal hemostasis
  • Excessivecoagulation
    • Thrombus: blood clot attached to wall
    • Embolus: moving blood clot
      • i.e. strokes, pulmonary embolism: immobile embolus within a blood vessel.
  • Inadequate coagulation
    • Hemophilia
      • Missing clotting factor
      • Symptoms including excessive bleeding (external and internal)